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Unit 12
Anatomy and Physiology


Exam date: ________________________


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Respiratory System

Structure of the respiratory system:

Nasal cavity ­ the main route of air entry into the body.
It is lined with ciliated epithelial cells which contains
mucussecreting goblet cells. The function of the
nasal passage is to warm the air, filter and clean the
air and humidification of…

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Expiration ­ relaxation of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm results in an inward and
downward movement of the ribcage. As this occurs, pressure within the lungs rises and expels
air from the respiratory tract.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
During each inspiration, only some of the alveolar gases are…

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problem for some people and levels are likely to be higher on hot summer days. For those for
whom this is a trigger they are advised to avoid exercising outdoors, especially in the afternoon.

A chest xray is a test commonly performed for patients who wheeze. One is…

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steroids are generally avoided except for the most difficulttocontrol asthma because of the
undesirable side effects that often develop with prolonged oral steroid treatment.

Benefits of steroid treatment Side effects of steroid treatment
Quick response (usually within a few Stomach irritation (indigestion)
Easier to breathe, less wheezing Bloating (fluid…

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function e.g. large arteries have more
muscle/elastic tissue which lets them stretch
(absorbing the pressure from the heart as it beats).
In the arterioles the muscle layer is very thin which
lets the arterioles' diameter be precisely controlled
and allows the pressure to be maintained in them.
Veins and venules…

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Both atria contract simultaneously ­ followed by both ventricles. The muscular walls of the atria
are thinner than that of the ventricles and this is consistent with the amount of work they do (they
are only propelling blood into the ventricles with the help of gravity ­ whilst the ventricles…

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Coronary heart disease is caused by any problem with the coronary arteries that keeps the heart
from getting enough oxygen and nutrientrich blood. The most common cause by far is
atherosclerosis. Lack of sufficient blood is called ischemia, so coronary heart disease is
sometimes called ischemic heart disease.
The cause…

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the probe is moved around on the chest. The test is similar to the ultrasound scan that is used to
examine a pregnant woman's unborn baby. It is completely painless

Blood pressure monitoring
Blood pressure is the force (or pressure) that the blood exerts on the walls of the blood…

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Effects of Coronary heart disease on lifestyle and daily routine:

Problems caused by illness Effect on lifestyle/routine
Chest pain (angina) Difficulty carrying out all ADLs, mobility,
SOB employment.
Changes to social life
Dependent on people for personal care (change
in status)
Low selfesteem/concept/confidence, Changes to relationships (work and home)


Sam Morran


Very detailed resource.  I particularly like the detail that is included relating to diagnostic techniques and effect on lifestyle.



this booklet is amazing!



Incredible! Thank you!

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