unit 12 OCR Anatomy and Physiology

this contains information on all the body systems, a disorder for each system and how the disprder is diagnosed & treated as well as impact on lifestyle

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  • Created by: clarey
  • Created on: 10-06-13 13:33
Preview of unit 12 OCR Anatomy and Physiology

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Unit 12
Anatomy and Physiology
Exam date: ________________________

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Respiratory System
Structure of the respiratory system:
Nasal cavity ­ the main route of air entry into the body.
It is lined with ciliated epithelial cells which contains
mucussecreting goblet cells. The function of the
nasal passage is to warm the air, filter and clean the
air and humidification of the air as it enters the
respiratory system.
Larynx ­ is the organ that produces vocal sounds as
air passes over the vocal chords and therefore plays a
large role in speech.…read more

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Expiration ­ relaxation of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm results in an inward and
downward movement of the ribcage. As this occurs, pressure within the lungs rises and expels
air from the respiratory tract.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
During each inspiration, only some of the alveolar gases are
exchanged. Exchange of gases occurs when a difference in
partial pressure exists across a semipermeable membrane.
Gases move by diffusion from the higher concentration to the
lower until equilibrium is established.…read more

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For those for
whom this is a trigger they are advised to avoid exercising outdoors, especially in the afternoon.
A chest xray is a test commonly performed for patients who wheeze. One is usually done
to make sure there is not some other condition that may be causing symptoms e.g. a lung
Peakflow monitoring Peak Flow is probably the simplest test that is used to see how well
the person's asthma is doing.…read more

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Benefits of steroid treatment Side effects of steroid treatment
Quick response (usually within a few Stomach irritation (indigestion)
Easier to breathe, less wheezing Bloating (fluid retention)
Less `tightness' of chest Hunger
Less coughing and mucus production Sleeplessness
Women may have their menstrual cycle
become irregular for a brief while and may
develop a vaginal yeast infection.
Lifestyle changes:
People with asthma are able to carry on with a `normal' lifestyle if their asthma symptoms are
well controlled with medication.…read more

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In the arterioles the muscle layer is very thin which
lets the arterioles' diameter be precisely controlled
and allows the pressure to be maintained in them.
Veins and venules ­ these RETURN blood to the
heart at low pressure. The walls are thinner than
arteries but have the same 3 layers of tissue.
Veins have valves along their length which prevent
backflow of blood ­ ensuring it flows towards the
Capillaries ­ the smallest arterioles and venules meet at the
capillaries.…read more

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Coronary heart disease is caused by any problem with the coronary arteries that keeps the heart
from getting enough oxygen and nutrientrich blood. The most common cause by far is
atherosclerosis. Lack of sufficient blood is called ischemia, so coronary heart disease is
sometimes called ischemic heart disease.
The cause of coronary heart disease is related to multiple risk factors.…read more

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Effects of Coronary heart disease on lifestyle and daily routine:
Problems caused by illness Effect on lifestyle/routine
Chest pain (angina) Difficulty carrying out all ADLs, mobility,
SOB employment.
Changes to social life
Dependent on people for personal care (change
in status)
Low selfesteem/concept/confidence, Changes to relationships (work and home)
Fear (of recurrence) Stop exercising, stop having sex with partner,
give up smoking/alcohol/fatty food.…read more


Sam Morran

Very detailed resource.  I particularly like the detail that is included relating to diagnostic techniques and effect on lifestyle.


this booklet is amazing!


Incredible! Thank you!

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