Health and Social Care Anatomy and physiology

HideShow resource information

Functions of the cardiovascular system

•Heart – to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated  

•Vascular system – to ensure oxygenated blood is transported to where it is needed.

1 of 168

Blood Vessels

•Arteries – transport blood away from the heart

•Veins – transport blood towards the heart  

•Capillaries – exchange surface for gases and nutrients

2 of 168

blood vessels

  •Artery

 •Arteriole (small artery)

 •Vein

 •Venule (small vein)

 •Capillary

3 of 168

Differences between arteries and veins

•Direction of blood flow (towards/away)

•Pressure (high/low)

•Valves (presence/absence)

•Oxygenation of blood (oxygenated/deoxygenated)

•Pulse (yes/no)

•Thickness of walls (thick/thinner)

4 of 168

Functions of blood

•Transports gase

 •Transports nutrients

 •Removes wastes

 •Fights infection

 •Maintains body temperature

 •Maintains homeostasis

5 of 168

Blood structure and function

•Fluid – plasma

  •Cells

–Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

 –White blood cells

 –platelets

6 of 168

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

•Contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen in the lungs

•Transports oxygen around the body and releases it to the tissues.

7 of 168

platelets

•Tiny disc shaped cells  

•Prevent excessive bleeding  

•By forming clots

8 of 168

White blood cells (leukocytes)

•Defend the body against bacteria, viruses and fungi.  

•3 main types, monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes.

9 of 168

monocytes

Defend the body against  BACTERIAL infections

10 of 168

granulocytes

•Fight bacterial and fungal infections

•rapidly increase in number

•Engulf and destroy bacteria

•Die forming pus

•ingested by monocytes

11 of 168

lymphocytes

•2 types called T cells and B cells.

•T cells kill virus infected cells and cancer cells.

•B cells make antibodies.

•Antibodies bind to pathogens and prevent them from doing damage to the body

12 of 168

Cardiac Anatomy

The heart consists of 4 chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

  • Right atrium receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava
  • Blood flows from right atrium, across tricuspid valve, into right ventricle
  • Muscle of right ventricle is not as thick as left ventricle
  • Blood enters pulmonary artery from right ventricle.
  • Blood returns to heart from lungs via 4 pulmonary veins that enter left atrium
  • Blood flows from left atrium, across mitral valve, into left ventricle
  • Blood from left ventricle is ejected, across aortic valve, into aorta

 

13 of 168

The Cardiac Cycle

  • Atria receive blood from veins and store it prior to each heart beat
  • Right atrium receives blood from main body veins called "vena cava"
  • Superior vena cava SVC carries blood from head, upper chest and arms
  • Inferior vena cava IVC carries blood from lower chest, abdomen and legs
  • Left atrium receives blood from lungs via 4 separate pulmonary veins
  • Systole refers to a period of contraction by heart muscle
  • Diastole refers to a period of relaxation by heart muscle
14 of 168

Atrial systole

  • Both atria contract and push stored blood across AV valves into ventricles, to help fill them
  • Atrioventricular (AV) valves include
  • Mitral valve located between left atrium and left ventricle
  • and tricuspid valve which separates right atrium from right ventricle
  • Reduces the volume of atria and increases pressure
15 of 168

Ventricular systole

  • After atria contracts, ventricles begin to contract
  • Pressure in ventricles increases, blood is forced against AV valves
  • Valves close to prevent backflow → first heart sound
  • Volume is reduced
  • Blood is ejected into arteries through aortic and pulmonary valves
16 of 168

Ventricular diastole

  • End of cardiac cycle, all chambers relax
  • Aortic and pulmonary valves close (second heart sound) / prevents backflow into heart
  • Atria begin to fill up again to start next cycle
  • Volume increases and pressure decreases
17 of 168

Electrophysiology

  • Sinus node is located at the top right atrium
  • Electrical signal rapidly spreads from the Sinus node across the right atrium and left atrium
  • Only one area where atria and ventricles are electrically connected
  • Atrioventricular node or AV node deep in center of heart
  • All electrical signals from atrium must pass through AV node in order to get to ventricles
  • AV node is connected to the Bundle of His
  • Branches into a right bundle (to right ventricle) and left bundle (to left ventricle)
  • Fibers that branch out to distant ventricular tissues are called Purkinje Fibers
18 of 168

P, QRS, T

•P wave – contraction of the atria  

•QRS waves - contraction of ventricles  

•T wave – relaxation of the ventricles

19 of 168

ECG can be used for:

•Diagnosing heart attack

•Monitoring treatment for CAD

•Identifying rhythm problems

•Thickening of heart muscle due to hypertension

20 of 168

Coronary artery disease

•Plaques form in the walls of arteries

•The plaques split open

•Causes blood to clot (a thrombus)

•Thrombus blocks the artery

21 of 168

Causes of artery disease

•Poor diet

•Alcohol and smoking

•Stress and lack of exercise

•hypertension

•Hereditary conditions

22 of 168

Causes of a stroke

age – you are more likely to have a stroke if you are over 65 years old, although about a quarter of strokes happen in younger people

  • family history – if a close relative (parent, grandparent, brother or sister) has had a stroke, your risk is likely to be higher
  • ethnicity – if you are south Asian, African or Caribbean, your risk of stroke is higher, partly because rates of diabetes and high blood pressure are higher in these groups
  • your medical history – if you have previously had a stroke, TIA or heart attack, your risk of stroke is higher
  • Ischaemic strokes, the most common type of stroke, occur when blood clots block the flow of blood to the brain
  • Haemorrhagic strokes usually occur when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and bleeds into the brain
23 of 168

Ischaemic strokes (clot) 80%

·   smoking – sticky blood and less elastic

  • high blood pressure (hypertension)
  • obesity
  • high cholesterol levels (often caused by a high-fat diet, but can result from inherited factors)
  • a family history of heart disease or diabetes
  • excessive alcohol intake
  • atrial fibrillation, blood not moved around the body so it them becomes a clot (move around the body to the brain)
24 of 168

Haemorrhagic strokes (bleed) Causes

The main cause of haemorrhagic stroke is high blood pressure (hypertension), which can weaken the arteries in the brain and make them prone to split or rupture.

Things that increase the risk of high blood pressure include:

being overweight or obese

  • drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
  • smoking
  • a lack of exercise
  • stress, which may cause a temporary rise in blood pressure
25 of 168

Diagnosis of Stroke

Physical symptoms

Blood tests –cholesterol

Blood pressure

ECG

Ct and MRI scans

Swallow test

Heart and blood vessel tests (ultrasound (carotid Dopplers) and an echocardiogram)

26 of 168

Treatment of Stroke

Thrombolysis (within 4 hours) –aspirin (anti platelet medication)

Anticoagulants – aspirin

Surgery to remove blood from brain

High blood pressure medicines – Anti hypertensive medication –

Cholesterol- STATINS, Simvastatin

Physiotherapy, OT, Speech and language specialist

27 of 168

Symptoms

FAST: Face-Arms-Speech-Time.

  • Face – the face may have dropped on one side, the person may not be able to smile or their mouth or eye may have drooped
  • Arms – the person with suspected stroke may not be able to lift one or both arms and keep them there because of arm weakness or numbness
  • Speech – their speech may be slurred or garbled, or the person may not be able to talk at all despite appearing to be awake. Loss of speech – Aphasia
  • Time – it is time to dial 999 immediately if you see any of these signs or symptoms
28 of 168

Mouth- Oral cavity

mastication (chewing) "mechanical digestion"

chemical digestion, food mixes with saliva and an enzyme called Amylase breakes down carbohydrates

saliva moistens food so it is able to form into a bolbus

29 of 168

Oesophagus

  • Takes food into the stomach by peristalsis
  • production of mucus to lubricate food
  • carries vomit back into the mouth
30 of 168

Stomach

  • stores food (chyme)
  • mechanical digestion- churning food by muscualr contraction
  • produces mucus to protect the stomach lining
31 of 168

Small Intestine/bowl

  • where most of the digestion takes places
  • The production of some digestive enzymes
  • absorbs the nutrients through villi
32 of 168

Liver

  • stores glycogen for balancing blood sugar levels
  • produces bule
  • detoxification
33 of 168

Gall Bladder

  • stores bile
  • it contracts to release bile into the small intestine when acid and fatty foods enter
34 of 168

Pancrease

  • produces insulin to maintain blood glucose levels
  • produces digestive enzymes - protease/trypsin= proteins

- lipase=fats

- pancreatic amylase=carbohydrates

  • neutralises the small intestine
35 of 168

Large Intestine

  • absorbs water
  • transportation of waste
  • produces some vitamins
36 of 168

Rectum

  • Stores feces
  • produces mucus
37 of 168

Coeliac Disease

Causes- an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue

Coeliac disease isn't an allergy or intolerance to gluten

The immune system mistakes substances found inside gluten as a threat to the body and attacks them

This damages the surface of the small intestines (Villi), disrupting the body’s ability to absorb nutrients from food.

Exactly what causes the immune system to act in this way is still not entirely clear, although a combination of a person's genetic make-up and the environment appear to play a part.

38 of 168

Effects/symptoms

  • mild abdominal (stomach) pain
  • bloating
  • occasional changes in bowel habit, such as episodes of mild diarrhea or constipation
  • anemia (tiredness, breathlessness and an irregular heartbeat, caused by a lack of iron in the blood)
  • loss of appetite
  • Villi flattened= Mal-absorption =weight loss
  • Depression b vitamins
  • Risk of osteoporosis and cancer later in life
39 of 168

Diagnostic techniques

Screening for coeliac disease involves a two stage process:

  • Blood tests – If coeliac disease antibodies are found in your blood, your GP will refer you for a biopsy of your gut.
  • A (endoscopy) biopsy – A biopsy can help confirm a diagnosis of coeliac disease. The gastroenterologist will pass a tiny biopsy tool through the endoscope to take samples of the lining of your small intestine. The sample will then be examined under a microscope for signs of coeliac disease. The endoscopy can show the villi and see if there damaged
40 of 168

Treatment- coeliac disease

There is no cure for coeliac disease, but switching to a gluten-free diet should help control symptoms and prevent long term consequences of the disease.

-          Vaccinations (e.g. Flu) and supplements (vitamins and minerals) can also be used if a person has a low immune system

41 of 168

Functions of the musculo-skeletal system

•Support

•Movement

•protection

42 of 168

Structures

  •Muscles

•Bones (skeleton)

43 of 168

Skeletal muscles

Voluntary muscles  

•Attached to bones of the skeleton  

•Muscles can contract and relax  

•Bring about movement of the skeleton

44 of 168

Synovial joint

Synovial membrane - secretes synovial fluid

•Synovial fluid – lubricates the joint

•Cartilage – smooth surface to end of bones and cushions joints

•Tendons – joint muscles to bones

•Ligaments – join bone to bone

45 of 168

Types of joint

•Ball and socket - hips and shoulders

•Hinge – elbow and knee

•Pivot – head at the top of the spine

•Gliding/sliding – wrist and ankles

•Fixed – skull

46 of 168

Nervous system

Its overall functions are to collect information about the body's external/internal states and transfer this information to the brain to analyse this information, and to send impulses out to initiate appropriate motor responses to meet the body's needs. 

47 of 168

Neurons

The system is composed of specialized cells, termed nerve cells or neurons, that communicate with each other and with other cells in the body.

48 of 168

A neuron has three parts:

The cell body, containing the nucleus

The dendrites, hair-like structures surrounding the cell body, which conduct incoming signals.

The axon (or nerve fiber), which conduct outgoing signals emitted by the neuron. Axons are encased in a fat-like sheath, called myelin sheath, which acts like an insulator and, along with the Nodes of Ranvier, speeds impulse transmission.

49 of 168

Major Divisions of the Nervous System

The nerves of the body are organized into two major systems:

•the central nervous system (CNS), consisting of of the brain and spinal cord,

•the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the vast network of spinal and cranial nerves linking the body to the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is subdivided into: –the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles), consisting of the sympathetic NS and  parasympathetic NS –the somatic nervous system (voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle).

50 of 168

The PNS is subdivided into:

–the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles), consisting of the sympathetic NS and  parasympathetic NS –the somatic nervous system (voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle).

51 of 168

Central nervous system

The central nervous system is divided into two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.

52 of 168

Somatic Nervous System

•The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibres that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibres that project to skeletal muscle.

53 of 168

Autonomic Nervous System

•The autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and glands.

54 of 168

Peripheral nervous system

•In the peripheral nervous system, neurons can be functionally divided in three ways:

•Sensory (afferent) - carry information INTO the central nervous system from sense organs or motor (efferent) - carry information away from the central nervous system (for muscle control).

•Cranial - connects the brain with the periphery or spinal - connects the spinal cord with the periphery.

•Somatic - connects the skin or muscle with the central nervous system or visceral - connects the internal organs with the central nervous system.

55 of 168

Brain - functions

•Thought

•Voluntary movement

•Language

•Reasoning

•Perception

56 of 168

Corpus Callosum

•The right and left sides of the cerebral cortex are connected by a thick band of nerve fibres called the "corpus callosum."

57 of 168

Cerebellum

The word "cerebellum" comes from the Latin word for "little brain." The cerebellum is located behind the brain stem. In some ways, the cerebellum is similar to the cerebral cortex: the cerebellum is divided into hemispheres and has a cortex that surrounds these hemispheres.

•Functions: •Movement

•Balance

•Posture

58 of 168

Brain stem (medulla and pons)

The brain stem is a general term for the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. Structures within the brain stem include the medulla and  pon

Some of these areas are responsible for the most basic functions of life such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.

•Functions:

•Breathing, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure

59 of 168

Hypothalamus

•Functions:

•Body Temperature

•Emotions – moods and motivation

•Hunger

•Thirst

•Sexual maturation

•Hormonal body processes

60 of 168

Pituitary Gland

•Functions:

•Hormonal body processes

•Physical maturation

•Growth (height and form)

•Sexual maturation

•Sexual functioning

61 of 168

Left Hemisphere

•Sequential Analysis: systematic, logical interpretation of information.

•Interpretation and production of symbolic information: language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning.

•Memory stored in a language format

62 of 168

Right Hemisphere

•Holistic Functioning: processing multi-sensory input simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment.

•Visual spatial skills.

•Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere.

•Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities.

63 of 168

Lobes

•Four distinct lobes make up the cerebrum: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. Each of these parts of the brain has different functions. Some of these functions may overlap: for instance, the frontal and temporal lobes are both important for language and speech.

64 of 168

Frontal Lobe:

The frontal lobe is responsible for speech, movement, planning, organising, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions" including behaviour and emotions.

65 of 168

Temporal Lobe

controls memory, personality, and language. 

also allows us to distinguish smells and sounds. 

help in sorting new information and are believed to be responsible for short-term memory.

•Right Lobe - Mainly involved in visual memory (i.e., memory for pictures and faces).

•Left Lobe - Mainly involved in verbal memory (i.e., memory for words and names)

66 of 168

Parietal Lobe

pain, pressure, and other physical sensations.

the area of the brain that allows us to identify objects.

67 of 168

Occipital Lobe

processes visual stimuli and allows the brain to process light and objects. 

also contains association areas that help in the visual recognition of shapes and colors.

Damage to this lobe can cause visual deficits

68 of 168

Structures - Respiratory System

•Larynx – voice box

•Trachea – windpipe

•Bronchi – left and right to each lobe of lung

•Bronchioles – smaller tubes leading to:

•Alveoli – small air sacs – site of gas exchange.

69 of 168

Other structures - Respiratory System

•Pleural membranes – cover and protect lungs.

•Diaphragm – dome shaped muscle separates chest from abdomen.

•Intercostal muscles – contract and relax to expand the chest volume.

•Pulmonary arteries and veins – move blood through the lungs.

70 of 168

Functions of the respiratory system

•Inspiration/expiration (breathing!)  

•Gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

71 of 168

Gas exchange is based on passive diffusion

•A large surface area for exchange of gases.

•A short distance for the gases to diffuse.

•Concentration gradients for the gases.

72 of 168

Alveoli are:

Numerous (large surface area)

Thin walled (short distance)

Surrounded by many tiny capillaries (keeps a concentration gradient)

to speed up diffusion!

73 of 168

Transport of gases

•Oxygen binds to haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin.

•Carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood plasma.

74 of 168

Symptoms of asthma

•Airways become inflamed and narrow

•Tightness in the chest

•Difficulty in breathing (out)

•Wheezing and breathlessness

•distress

•Anxiety (sweating, rapid heart beat)

•Cyanosis of lips and face

75 of 168

Causes of asthma

Inherited

overweight

Exercise

Low Temperatures

Chemical Foods

Smoking

House dust

Aerosols

Household Cleaners

Car Fumes

76 of 168

Asthma diagnosis

•Peak flow meter

•spirometry

•Diagnostic imaging techniques

•Blood tests

77 of 168

Peak flow

•Measures maximum volume of air that can be blown during the 1st second of expiration (FEV1)

•Score based on age and height

•Best of 3 attempts

•Check during time of no symptoms

•Monitor decrease during asthma attack

78 of 168

What does FEV1 tell you?

•Helps to identify triggers.

•Identifies best medicines for each individual.

•Decrease during attack indicates symptoms worsening – change medication?

•Stable value during attack indicates medication working.

79 of 168

Diagnostic imaging techniques - Asthma

•Chest X ray to show change in structure of lungs or infection

•CT/MRI scan to assess the condition of the lungs

80 of 168

Blood tests - Asthma

•Arterial blood gas can show low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxia) or high levels of carbon dioxide (respiratory acidosis).

•Used to identify infections

•Used to identify allergies by looking at antibody levels.

81 of 168

Treatment of asthma

•Preventers e.g. steroids

•Relievers e.g. Ventolin

•Antibiotics

•Avoidance of triggers

82 of 168

Steroids (preventers)

 •Reduce inflammation

•Reduce mucus production

•Reduce swelling and narrowing of airways

•Help reliever medicines to work better.

83 of 168

Ventolin (reliever)

•Relax muscles that constrict airways

•Help the flow of respiratory gases

•Balance the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide

•Use as an inhaler

84 of 168

Physical effects - Asthma

•Wheezing

•Coughing

•Shortness of breath

•Chest infections

85 of 168

Intellectual effects - Asthma

•not understanding the overall causes

•Not understanding the disease process and its effects

•Not understanding the links between the causes and effects on themselves

•effects on work

•effects on education

86 of 168

Emotional effects - Asthma

•bullying

•fear  or anxiety of condition / treatments

•low self esteem / self worth / self concept

•frustration due to constraints on lifestyle

•Emotional effects on family

•lack of empowerment

87 of 168

Social effects - Asthma

•social stigma

•unable to have a normal social (sporting) life style

•unable to participate fully in education or working activities

88 of 168

Ureters

25 – 30 cm long and 4-5mm in diameter. Transport urine from kidneys to bladder.  Enter the bladder at an angle to prevent reflux of urine.

89 of 168

Urinary bladder

hollow muscular organ which can expand. Urinary sphincter keeps the urethra closed and prevents reflux of urine.

90 of 168

Prostate

Only found in men!

•Surrounds the top of the urethra.

•Provides the fluid for semen.

•May get larger in older men and block the flow of urine.

91 of 168

Structure of a kidney

cortex- outer layer

medulla- middle layer

Renal Pelvis- connects the kidney to the upper end of the ureter

calyx- 2-3 major calyces diveded into 8-14 minor calyces. collection area for urine

92 of 168

Nephrons

•Made from a filter (glomerulus)

•Bowman’s capsule

•Proximal tubule

•Loop of Henle

•Collecting duct

93 of 168

Description of structures

•Glomerulus – network of capillaries. Site of ultrafiltration. Fluid filtered out under pressure.  

•Bowman’s capsule – a double walled chamber containing the glomerulus.

94 of 168

Description of structures

•Proximal tubule – coiled tube, reabsorbs glucose

•Loop of Henle – reabsorbs water

•Distal tubule – coiled tube, reabsorbs electrolytes

•Collecting duct – site of osmoregulation and leads to the calyx.

95 of 168

Functions of the kidney

•Urine production

AND

•osmoregulation

96 of 168

Urine production - ultrafiltration

•High pressure in glomerulus forces fluid into the Bowman’s capsule = ultrafiltration.

•Small molecules such as water, glucose, electrolytes and urea (a poisonous substance made in the liver from unwanted amino acids), are filtered out of the blood and collect in the fluid in the Bowman’s capsule.

97 of 168

Useful molecules are reabsorbed

•All of the glucose in the proximal tubule

•Most of the water in the loop of Henle

•Most of the electrolytes in the distal tubule  

•Urea is not reabsorbed.

98 of 168

osmoregulation

•Maintaining the correct water and electrolyte content of the body and its fluids.

•Takes place in the collecting duct by changing their ability to reabsorb water from the fluid.

•Controlled by a hormone made in the brain.

99 of 168

Nephrotic syndrome

•A syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms that occur together that indicate that the nephron is not working properly.

100 of 168

causes - Nephrotic syndrome

•Auto-immune disease.

•Thought to be triggered by a throat infection.

•Immune system attacks the glomerulus/Bowman’s capsule, damaging basement membrane (filter).

•Allows leakage of proteins.

101 of 168

Main symptoms - Nephrotic Syndrome

•Protein in the urine

•Abnormal blood and urine values

•Fluid retention/oedema/swelling

•“Moon face”

•Increased blood clotting times

•Reduced immunity

•Leads to renal failure

102 of 168

Physiological effects of renal failure

•Little or no glomerular filtration

•Little urine produced (50-250ml/day)

•Oedema due to salt and water retention

•Increased levels of urea and potassium in the blood

•Acidosis (inability to excrete acid substances)

•Cardiac arrest

103 of 168

Physiological effects of renal failure

•Fever/high temperature

•Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and hiccups caused by uraemia.

•High blood pressure

•Yellow/brown skin discoloration

•Neuropathy twitching

•Lack of concentration

104 of 168

Physical effects- Renal Failure

•effects on mobility

•decreased immunity

•See previous slides for alternative physical effects

105 of 168

Intellectual effects- renal failure

•not understanding the overall causes

•Not understanding the disease process and its effects

•Not understanding the links between the causes and effects on themselves

•effects on work

•effects on education

106 of 168

Emotional effects-renal failure

•bullying

•fear of condition / treatments

•low self esteem / self worth / self concept

•frustration due to constraints on lifestyle

•reassesses own life and its effects on those close to them

•lack of empowerment

107 of 168

Social effects- renal failure

•social stigma

•unable to have a normal social life style.

•unable to attend education or working activities without feeling inadequate

108 of 168

Diagnosing renal dysfunctions

•Urine tests using dipsticks for :

•Blood, glucose, protein  

•Blood tests:

•U and E’s (urea and electrolytes)

•eGFR

•Protein in the blood

109 of 168

Diagnosing renal dysfunctions

•Plain X rays

•X rays using contrast injections (urography or IVU)

•CAT scans to get a detailed “slice”

•MRI scans to get a detailed 3D picture. (Uses magnets, not x rays).

•uroscopy/urethroscopy using a fibre optic instrument passed into the urethra.

110 of 168

Drug treatment of nephrotic syndrome

 Steroids - reduce inflammation

•Immunosuppressant drugs - suppress immune response

•Diuretics - increase urine production

•Coping with the side effects of these drugs e.g. change in appearance, disruption of routines

111 of 168

Treatments for renal failure are

•Haemodialysis  

•Peritoneal dialysis

112 of 168

haemodialysis

•in a patient suffering from temporary or permanent kidney failure, cleansing of the blood can be done with an artificial kidney machine; this is known as haemodialysis.

•two plastic tubes, one connected to anarteryand one to avein, are implanted in the patient's arm.

•Dialysis takes 3-5 hrs per treatment, 3 days a week. •blood enters the machine from the artery and comes into contact with a thin membrane.

•wastes from the blood pass through the membrane into the dialysis fluid on the other side of the membrane.

113 of 168

Positives of haemodialysis

•Efficient

•Patient feels better immediately

•Less restricted food intake

•No need to wear a bag

•No need to worry about a transplant

•No medical equipment at home

114 of 168

Negatives of haemodialysis

•Expensive

•Time consuming

•Restricted movement

•Shunt required

•Infection risk

•Clotting risk

•Air embolus risk

115 of 168

Peritoneal dialysis

•The patient's peritoneum (lining of the abdominal cavity) is used as the dialysis membrane

•a sterile plastic catheter (tube) is passed into the abdominal cavity

•Dialysis fluid is periodically injected into and withdrawn from the cavity.

116 of 168

Peritoneal dialysis 2

•The fluid comes into contact with capillaries in the peritoneum.  

•Wastes from the blood diffuse through the membrane of the peritoneal wall due to the differences in concentration of molecules between the blood and fluid.

•The dialysis liquid is periodically withdrawn and replaced with a fresh solution.

117 of 168

Positives of peritoneal dialysis

•Cheaper

•Used where haemodialysis machine unavailable.

•Patient can move around.

•Can be done at home.

118 of 168

Negatives of peritoneal dialysis

•Uncomfortable

•Slow (several hours)

•Draining fluid can be difficult and time consuming.

• embarrassing to have bags attached.

119 of 168

Renal transplant

•Operation takes 4 hours

•General anaesthetic can be risky

•Remove tissue matched kidney from donor

•Insert in recipient above pelvic brim

•Attach new kidney to iliac blood vessels

•Attach ureter to new kidney

•Do not remove damaged kidneys unless required.

Start anti rejection drugs immediately

120 of 168

Symptoms of kidney failure

tiredness,increasing need to urinate, especially at night, 

itchy skin, nausea,

erectile dysfunction, 

shortness of breath, 

swollen ankles, feet or hands (due to water retention), and 

blood and/or protein in the urine.

If kidney failure has been caused by a sudden injury, these symptoms can appear rapidly, and may progress quickly to seizures, coma and potentially death.

121 of 168

Functions of Reproductive System-female

•Ovary – produces ovum, stores ovum, secretes hormones (oestrogen and progesterone)

•Ovum (ova) – an egg. One is released each month to be fertilised by a sperm

•Fallopian tubes – transfer the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Site of fertilisation.

122 of 168

Functions of Reproductive System-female 2

•Uterus – accepts fertilised ovum, site where foetus develops, expands during pregnancy, contracts during birth

•Cervix – circular ring of muscle at the entrance to the uterus, dialates when giving birth

•Vagina – path for menstrual blood to leave body, route for baby to leave uterus, produces lubrication during sexual activity

123 of 168

The menstrual cycle

•Controlled by changing the levels of the female hormones.

•Uterus lining thickens, then an ovum is released.

•If ovum is fertilised it implants in the uterus.

•If it is not fertilised, the lining of the uterus breaks down (menstruation).

124 of 168

Female hormones

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) made by the pituitary gland in the brain.

•Oestrogen made by the ovaries

•LH (luteinising hormone) made by the pituitary gland.

•Progesterone made by the ovaries

•(FOLP = order of secretion)

125 of 168

Stages of the menstrual cycle

•Days 1-6  (menstrual phase)  

•Days 7-14 (follicular phase)  

•Days 15 – 28 (secretory phase)  

•= roughly 28 days

126 of 168

Menstrual phase (days 1-6)

•Lining (endometrium) of uterus is shed

•First day of bleeding is day 1

•Can be painful

•Can be unusually heavy in some women

127 of 168

Follicular phase (days 7-14)

•An ovum grows and matures. Controlled by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) produced by the pituitary gland.

•The uterus lining thickens. Controlled by oestrogen produced by the ovary.

128 of 168

Day 14 - ovulation

•A mature ovum is released from the ovary (ovulation).

•Controlled by LH (luteinising hormone) produced by the pituitary gland.

•The ovum travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus.

•Fertilisation takes place in the fallopian tube.

129 of 168

Secretory phase (days 15-28)

•LH also causes the empty follicle to turn into a corpus luteum.

•The corpus luteum secretes progesterone.

•Progesterone keeps the uterus lining thick and spongy, ready to receive a fertilised ovum.

130 of 168

fertilisation

•A newly fertilised ovum is called a zygote.

•Zygote travels down the fallopian tube and implants into the uterus lining

•Now called an embryo

•Embryo develops into a foetus

131 of 168

hCG

•Once implanted, the embryo produces a hormone to stimulate the placenta to grow.  

•The hormone is called hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and is the hormone detected by pregnancy tests.

132 of 168

male reproductive system

•Urethra

•Penis

•Testicle

•Seminal vesicle Prostate

•Vas deferens (sperm duct) epididymis

133 of 168

functions of the male reproductive system

•Urethra – structure through which urine  passes from the bladder

•Penis – for intercourse or urination

•Seminal vesicle – produces a solution to neutralise acids

•Prostate – produces a nutrient fluid for sperm

134 of 168

functions of the male reproductive system

•Testicle – produces sperm

•Epididymis = matures sperm and stores them for up to one month

•Vas deferens (sperm duct) – moves sperm from the epididymis to the urethra

135 of 168

Why are the testes outside the body?

•Sperm production is temperature related.

•The temperature of the ******** must be a few degrees lower than body temperature (370C)…

•…for optimum sperm production.

•Testes can also be moved nearer to the body in cold weather.

136 of 168

Causes of female infertility

1.Problems with ovulation

2.Problems with the  fallopian tubes

3.Problems with the uterus  

4.Other causes (e.g. medicines/drugs/lifestyle/age)

137 of 168

Problems with ovulation

•Premature ovarian failure

•Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

•Thyroid problems

•Chronic conditions e.g. anorexia, excessive exercise, cancer

138 of 168

2. Problems with the fallopian tubes

•STI’s including chlamydia

•Previous ectopic pregnancy

•Previous sterilisation  (not always reversible!)

139 of 168

3. Problems with the uterus

•Pelvic surgery

•Surgery to the cervix

•Fibroids

•Endometriosis

•Hostile mucus

140 of 168

4. Other causes female infertility

•Long term NSAID  (nurofen) use

•Illegal drugs particularly cannabis and cocaine

•Age (declines rapidly after mid 30’s) /menopause

•chemotherapy

141 of 168

Infertility in men

1.Problems with semen (sperm)

2.Problems with testicles

3.Problems with ***********

4.Other  causes e.g. medicines and drugs

142 of 168

1. Problems with sperm

•Decreased number (sperm count)

•Decreased motility

•Abnormal sperm

143 of 168

2. Problems with testicles

•Decrease in number or quality of sperm  

•Infection

•Testicular cancer

•Surgery

•injury

144 of 168

3. Problems with ***********

•Retrograde ***********

•Blocked vas deferens

•impotence

145 of 168

4. Medicines and drugs

Anabolic steroids

chemotherapy

146 of 168

Factors that affect men and women - infertility

•Weight

•STI’s

•Smoking

•Stress

•Environmental factors (e.g. pesticides, solvents)

•Poor diet

147 of 168

Diagnosing infertility

•Clinical observation

•Ultrasound

•Blood tests

•salpingogram

•laparoscopy

148 of 168

Clinical observation - infertility

•Weight

•Abdominal tenderness or swelling

•General health

149 of 168

ultrasound - infertility

•Radiographer

•Full bladder

•Lubricating skin gel

•Probe moved over skin

•Sound waves detected by computer and displayed as an image.

150 of 168

Blood tests - infertility

•FSH – high levels indicate premature menopause, low levels indicate hormone imbalance

•LH – high levels may indicate PCOS

•Prolactin – high levels caused by stress can prevent release of FSH and LH

151 of 168

salpingogram - infertility

•Diagnoses whether the fallopian tubes are clear (patent).

•Uses speculum to observe cervix

•Dye placed into uterus

“Fill and spill” of dye. Dye spills through fallopian tubes into abdomen.

152 of 168

laparoscopy -infertility

•Cut made in belly button

•Gas introduced into abdomen

•Doctor introduces microscope (laparoscope) to find blockages

•Dye may be injected or other instruments inserted

•Afterwards, gas allowed to escape

•Cuts closed with stitches

153 of 168

Treating infertility

•Correcting unbalanced hormones

•Surgery to remove blockages

•IVF

•Sperm donation

•Treating erection problems

•Lifestyle changes

154 of 168

Correcting imbalanced hormones

 Correct oestrogen and progesterone

•Clomid given to stimulate ovulation

155 of 168

surgery - treating infertility

•Laparoscopy to clear blocked fallopian tubes

•Laparoscopy to remove ectopic pregnancy

•Surgery to remove fibroids in uterus

•Remove blockages in the epididymis in men

156 of 168

IVF – in vitro fertilisation

•Preparation before IVF

•Egg retrieval

•Fertilisation

•Embryo formation

•Implantation

•pregnancy

157 of 168

Preparation before IVF

 •Fertility drugs (clomid) given to stimulate the ovary to produce lots of eggs.

•Blood tests and ultrasound used to see if eggs are developing.

158 of 168

Egg retrieval

•Outpatient clinic

•Local anaesthetic used

•Needle inserted into ovary

•Eggs removed

•Man produces a semen sample

159 of 168

fertilisation - IVF

•Eggs examined and counted

•Sperm added to dish to fertilise eggs

•Special fluid added to nourish eggs and sperm

160 of 168

Embryo formation - IVF

•Check 18 hours later to see if an embryo is forming.

Incubate for 2-3 days until embryo is large enough to be implanted in uterus.

161 of 168

implantation IVF

•Pass a catheter through the cervix into the uterus

•Transfer up to 2 embryos into the uterus

•Patient rests for a short time in bed to allow embryo to implant

162 of 168

pregnancy IVF

  •Hormones given for 2 weeks to help embryo to remain implanted.

Positive pregnancy test=worked

163 of 168

Sperm donation - treat infertility

•AID (artificial insemination by donor)

•AIH (artificial insemination by husband)

•Sperm usually placed in the ****** or can be placed in the fallopian tubes in GIFT – gamete intra-fallopian transfer

164 of 168

Ultrasound is used to monitor pregnancy.

•General values – non invasive, relatively painless, instant images, relatively low cost, quick, good pictures of soft tissue, real time images.

•Diagnostic values – date foetus, identify abnormalities, identify gender, monitor growth.

165 of 168

Types of ultrasound probe

•Surface probe – the probe moves over the surface of the skin. A lubricating gel helps to conduct the sound waves into the body.

•vaginal probe – used to gain a better image of tissues inside the body.

166 of 168

How does an ultrasound work?

•High frequency sound waves are generated by a hand-held probe.

•The sound waves can pass through liquids and soft tissues.

•Sound is reflected back off solid objects and the time of travel is calculated and turned into an image by the receiver.

167 of 168

How does an ultrasound work? 2

•Images are constantly updated so the scan can show movement.

•Structures can be viewed from different angles.

•Measurements can be made of the foetus.

Still pictures can be printed out or saved on computer for comparison.

168 of 168

Comments

Tahira01

Brilliant just what i needed for my health and social care A& P exam! Thank 

you so much!!

Similar Health & Social Care resources:

See all Health & Social Care resources »See all Anatomy and physiology in practice resources »