Systems, Dysfunctions, Treatment

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  • Created on: 23-05-16 10:41
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The Cardiovascular System
Function: To carry blood around the body to transport oxygen to cells and get rid of waste
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
When one or more arteries talking blood to the heart muscle become blocked or
narrowed by plaques .
Causes less oxygen to get to the heart muscle, and so it will die.
Atherosclerosis (a buildup of cholesterol over plaque) narrows arteries further.
If the blood cells start to stick together they will form a blockage and cause a heart
attack .
Genetics /family history.
More likely to affect males.
Lifestyle choices : smoking, alcohol
Fat intake: high amounts of saturated and animal fats.
Obesity: diet/inactivity.
Cheapest and least invasive first
GP will listen to heartbeat for the rhythm.
Check blood pressure : GP checks the pressure on the artery wall as the heart
contracts. The average for young adult is 120/80.
Blood test to check levels of cholesterol.
Refer to hospital for:
X Ray : to rule out any other conditions
Electrocardiogram ( ECG ): measures the electrical impulse from the pacemaker
(sinoatrial node) that causes the heart to contract.
Echocardiography : Ultrasound of the heart that shows the valves and the flow of
Coronary Angiography : Injection of fluid is given to flow through the vessels and it
will show these vessels on an xray. E.g. any narrowing.
CT scan (computer tomography): Will show `slices' of the heart on the scan.
MRI scan (Magnetic resonance imaging): Clear picture of the heart and blood vessels.

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P: impulse from the sinoatrial node.
QRS: wave of contraction across the ventricle.
T: Ventricles relax.
Least invasive first .
Control Blood Pressure : medication, yoga, exercise
Medication will dilate the blood vessels.
Angioplasty : A catheter is inserted into the blood vessels in the groin or arm and fed
through to the blocked artery. A balloon is then expanded to stretch the artery and a
stent is put into place.
Coronary Stent: a spiral coil/straw to hold the vessel open.…read more

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Contains blood under high Contain blood under low Where diffusion takes place
pressure pressure
Small internal lumen Large internal lumen
Have valves to prevent back
flow of blood.…read more

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Blockage in the tubes or cervix.
A lack of/ poor ova/sperm
Treatment e.g. chemo
Lifestyle: obesity, smoking, alcohol.
Male erectile dysfunction (psychological or circulatory)
Sperm prevented from fertilizing ova (because antibodies in cervix)
Poor quality of the uterus (endometriosis, fibroids)
Cheapest and least invasive first
GP will ask questions about periods, sexual intercourse and medical history.…read more

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Least invasive and cheapest first
Recording temperature to know when ovulating.
Fertility medication
Operations to fix structural problems
IVF : stimulate ova, remove it and fertilise in the lab, then return to uterus.
GIFT (Gamete intra fallopian transfer): ova removed, put with sperm and returned to
fallopian tube.
In IVF and GIFT, there is a higher chance it will result in a multiple pregnancy.
These procedures are very controlled and unnatural ­ controversial.…read more

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Menstrual Cycle
Occurs over 28 days on average.
Phase Days What happens
The menstrual 15 The endometrium (lining) is shed with blood vessels and exit
phase from the vagina.
Blood loss is around 1080ml.
There may be cramping caused by the uterus and abdomen.
The follicular 113 The pituitary gland secretes `Follicle Stimulating Hormone'
phase (FSH ) which stimulates the egg cells in the ovary to grow .
One of the egg cells begin to mature in an egg sac ­ called a
follicle .…read more

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The flow of blood to the endometrium decreases and it is
shed in menstruation.
The corpus luteum withers and the drop in oestrogen
triggers another cycle.
Stage 1:
First stage of uterine contractions that last for 4050 seconds every 10 minutes. They
get longer and closer together as time goes on and birth is nearer. These
contractions mean the cervix is opening ready for the baby to pass through. It also
moves forward.…read more

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IVF: In vitro fertilisation
Fertilisation outside of the body .
Woman must take fertility medication to stimulate the ovaries to make more eggs
than usual.
When the eggs are ready, an operation is needed to get them out, called ` egg
retrieval '.
Each egg is mixed with sperm (from partner or sperm bank).
These egg and sperms are left for a few days in a test tube for the sperm to fertilise
the eggs and form embryos .…read more

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The Digestive System
Function: A group of organs work together to convert food into energy and nutrients for the
body to use.
Dysfunction: Gallstones
Bile from the liver can sometimes form solid crystals.
It's more likely to happen when there is high level of cholesterol in bile.
These crystals then increase in size to form a stone or gravel.
As the liquid bile passes out of the bile duct, it can cause the stone to move and
block the duct.…read more


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