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The Cardiovascular System


Function: To carry blood around the body to transport oxygen to cells and get rid of waste
(CO2).


Dysfunction:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

When one or more arteries talking blood to the heart muscle become blocked or
narrowed by plaques .
Causes less oxygen to get to…

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ECG


P: impulse from the sinoatrial node.

QRS: wave of contraction across the ventricle.

T: Ventricles relax.







Treatment:

Least invasive first .
Control Blood Pressure : medication, yoga, exercise
Medication will dilate the blood vessels.
Angioplasty : A catheter is inserted into the blood vessels in the groin or arm…

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elasticated walls
Contains blood under high Contain blood under low Where diffusion takes place
pressure pressure
Small internal lumen Large internal lumen
Have valves to prevent back
flow of blood.
Blood
Plasma Fluid that carry cells and nutrients
Erythrocytes Formed in bone marrow
(Red Blood Cells)
Contains haemoglobin
Transports oxygen…

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Dysfunction:

Infertility

Cause:

Blockage in the tubes or cervix.
A lack of/ poor ova/sperm
Infection
Treatment e.g. chemo
Lifestyle: obesity, smoking, alcohol.
Male erectile dysfunction (psychological or circulatory)
Sperm prevented from fertilizing ova (because antibodies in cervix)
Poor quality of the uterus (endometriosis, fibroids)




Diagnosis:

Cheapest and least invasive first…

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Treatment:

Least invasive and cheapest first



Female:

Recording temperature to know when ovulating.
Fertility medication
Operations to fix structural problems
IVF : stimulate ova, remove it and fertilise in the lab, then return to uterus.
GIFT (Gamete intra fallopian transfer): ova removed, put with sperm and returned to
fallopian tube.…

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Menstrual Cycle

Occurs over 28 days on average.

Phase Days What happens

The menstrual 15 The endometrium (lining) is shed with blood vessels and exit
phase from the vagina.
Blood loss is around 1080ml.
There may be cramping caused by the uterus and abdomen.

The follicular 113 The pituitary gland…

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around 1 week after ovulation and then begin to drop along
with the oestrogen level.
The flow of blood to the endometrium decreases and it is
shed in menstruation.
The corpus luteum withers and the drop in oestrogen
triggers another cycle.












Pregnancy:

Stage 1:

First stage of uterine contractions that…

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IVF: In vitro fertilisation

Fertilisation outside of the body .
Woman must take fertility medication to stimulate the ovaries to make more eggs
than usual.
When the eggs are ready, an operation is needed to get them out, called ` egg
retrieval '.
Each egg is mixed with sperm (from…

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The Digestive System


Function: A group of organs work together to convert food into energy and nutrients for the
body to use.


Dysfunction: Gallstones

Bile from the liver can sometimes form solid crystals.
It's more likely to happen when there is high level of cholesterol in bile.
These crystals then…

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