Physiology and Anatomy A2 Exam

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Respiratory System

The System

Cause of Cystic Fibrosis  

Diagnosis

Treatment 

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Respiratory System

Structure


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Respiratory System

Bronchi, Bronchioles and Alveoli with Air-Sacs 


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Respiratory System

Pleural Membranes

A fluid in between the two to stop damange from rubbing 

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Respiratory System

Diaphragm 

A hugh, dome-shaped muscle with a central circular tendon at the top of the dome. 


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Respiratory System

Inter-Costal Muscles 


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Respiratory System

Functions 

1) Breathing in and out (inspiration and expiration) 

2) Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange 


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Respiratory System

Breathing in and out 


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Respiratory System

Description of breathing 

1. Breathing doesnt need conscious control (but can be controlled if the person makes the effort)

2. Controlled automatically by the Medulla at the base of the brain

3. When we breath in, the Medulla sends a message via the phrenic nerves to the diaphragm. - when it pulls down, air is sucked into the lungs

4. For deeper breaths, we may need to increase the volume of the rub cage. The external inter-costal muscles do this by contracting to lift the ribs up. 

5. Ordinary expiration just requires relaxation of the diaphragm and the external inter-costals. 

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Respiratory System

Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide Exchange 

The blood enters the lungs containing lots of waste carbon dioxide (http://www.vgate.net.au/SOB/gas_exchange.jpg) 

The blood that leaves the lungs contains lots of useful oxygen 

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Respiratory System

Description of Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide Exchange 

1. O2 and CO2 is fized to Haemoglobin in red blood cells and dissolved in the plasma. CO2 is carried as bicarbonate in the plazma 

2. Red blood cells are needed to turn waste CO2 in to bicarbonate, and then back again when it gets to the lungs 

3. Waste CO2 levels are high in the blood but low in the alveoli, so it diffuses out. O2 levels are low in blood and high in alveoli ao O2 diffuses in and saturates the Haemoglobin 

Conditions - warm, short distance, capillaries so small, blood cells and squeezed, total surfce area is massive 


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Respiratory System

Cystic Fibrosis - Cause

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Respiratory System

Cause - Genetics 

One copy of the gene (from mum or dad) = no disease (not a carrier)

Two copies of the gene (one from mum, one from dad) = diseased. 

This is "Recessive Inheritance" 

The mutation is on Chromosome 7 

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Respiratory System

diagram 

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Respiratory System

Normal versions of the protein make a channel for chloride to pass through. Misshapen ones form if the person has the mutant gene - Chloride can't get through. Our body makes a lot of think and sticky mucus that builds up and blocks bronchioles 

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Respiratory System

Cause

Cystic Fibrosis can show up in new borns, and there is no life-style effects that cause it. 

Some lifestyle issues can make it worse:

  • poor diet - little protein and vitamins 
  • not eating enough salt in hot weather 
  • dieting to lose weight 
  • not doing enough excercise 
  • being exposed to infections and pollution
  • bad posture, making it hard for the lungs to move the mucus
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Respiratory System

Diagnosis 

The Salt in Sweat test - Their sweat is between 2 and 5 times more salty that a normal person. Sweat is collected and analysed  

Blood test - New borns have higher amounts of protein called Trypsinogen in their blood 

Genetics - Blood taken from parents to see if they carry the CFTR gene (faulty gene) 

Pros

  • Early diagnosis - helps avoid infection.
  • Genetic advice can be given because a couple have another baby. 

Cons 

  • Salt and Trysinogen tests not 100% certain. Salt content could just be outside normal range. Carriers may have high Trypsinogen levels 
  • Genetic tests are expensive (but more reliable) 
  • Genetic testing raises ethical issues. e.g. Abortion 
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Respiratory System

Treatment 

All treatments are designed to kepp airways clear and other organs free from sticky mucus - decreasing the risk. 

1. Physiotherapy - loosening mucus in the airway 

2. Exercise

3. Inhaled Antibiotics - to kill bacteria 

4. Inhaled Broncho-Dilators -  helps keep bronchioles open 

Future Treatment 

Gene therapy - put the correct gene in to a virus or into fat droplets to be inhaled 

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Respiratory System

Treatment

Pros 

  • Childrens lives are kept as normal as possible  
  • Progress is being made in research  

Cons 

  • Middle aged death is hard to live with  
  • Attention to medical procedures is difficult to live with
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Cardio-Vascular System

Structure 

- Heart

- Arteries and veins 

- Blood 

Heart Attack 

- Cause

- Diagnosis

- Treatment 

- Effect 

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Cardio-Vascular System

The Heart 


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Cardio-Vascular System

Arteries and Veins 

Arteries 

  • Carry blood under high pressure 
  • Have think walls
  • Narrow lumen 
  • No valves - Semi luma valves where artery leave the heart 
  • Carry blood away from heart 
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Cardio-Vascular System

Arteries and Veins 

Veins 

  • Carry blood under low pressure 
  • have thin walls 
  • wide lumen
  • have valves to stop back flow 
  • carry blood into the heart
  • rely on Skeletal Muscle Contraction to squeeze blood along. 
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Cardio-Vascular System

Blood 

(http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-lS1CBpZoZbA/TdoFh8L-gEI/AAAAAAAAAu8/STLf8LQYT84/s1600/blood+plasma+diagram.png)

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Cardio-Vascular System

Blood 

Red blood cells

- contains haemoglobin 

- transports CO2 and O2

Liquid plazma 

- most CO2 is tranported in this 

Platelets 

- Causes blood clots 

Phagocytes 

- Ingulfs bacteria 

Lymphocytes 

- Kills antibodies 

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Cardio-Vascular System

Cause 

Smoking - the toxins narrow and damage coronary arteries. 

Diet - a diet high in saturated fats will increase your blood cholesterol levels. oily fish can help lower cholesterol levels 

High Blood Presure - this can weaken coronary arteries, making them more vulnerable to CHD. 

Age and Sex - The older you get, the more likely you are to develop CHD. Men are two times more likely to have a heart attack. 

Diabetes - The increased levels of blood glucose associated diabetes can damage coronary arteries. these people are two to five more likely to develop CHD

Alcohol - can cause high blood pressure and increased blood cholestrol levels. 

Being overweight or Obese - leads to risk factors: high blood pressure, increased risk of type 2 diabetes. 

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Cardio-Vascular System

Diagnosis 

ECG Machine 

It records the hearts own electrical pulse to create an electrocadriograph. 

It does the following:

  • determines the rate and regularity of heartbeats 
  • measures the size and positioning of the chambers 
  • evaluates damaged and diseased tissue or other irregularities 
  • monitors any surgical repairs or effects of drugs 

How can it be used as a diagnostic tool? 

It can diagnose conditions such as Heart Attacks, Sinus Arrhythmias.

Able to constantly monitor someones heart without being invasive. 

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Cardio-Vascular System

Treatment 

Coronary Angioplasty - A tiny tude with a balloon on the end is inserted in to the groin or arm and passed through the blood vessels in to the heart. While being monitored using X-Ray, it is used to scrap away the blockage. The balloon is inflated to open it wide. A stent (flexible metal mesh) is inserted to keep the artery open. 

Thrombolysis - Injections that target Fibrin (a protein that causes blood clots). Aspirin may also be given along with other blood thining drugs 

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft - A blood vessel from another part of your body is taken and used to replace any hardened or narrow arteries in the heart. It is placed above and below the blockage. 

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Cardio-Vascular System

Effects On Lifestyle 

Diet - A change in diet is needed to prevent heart attacks - Oily fish will lower cholesterol. 

Smoking - Quiting as soon as possible to help to prevent heart attacks. 

Alcohol - Do not exceed the daily amount. 

Weight-Management - maintaining a healthy weight will allow you body not to work so hard and prevent a build up of fat in your coronary arteries. 

Pros

  • Changing small parts of your lifestyle can prevent heart attacks that will dramatically change your lifestyle. 

Cons

  • Hard to change something which is a routine in your life. 
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Digestive System

Structure 


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Digestive System

Organs 

Mouth (buccal cavity) 

Gland - Salivary Gland 

Juice - Saliva 

Contents - Salivary amylase 

Substrate - Carbohydrate: starch 

End Product - Disaccharides: 'double' molecule sugars 

Other Comments - Salivary amylase mixed with foods during mechanical digestion requires a neurtal pH to function. 

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Digestive System

Organs 

Oesophagus 

Gland - none

Juice - none

Contents - none 

Substrates - none 

End product - none

Other comments - Salivary Amylase still acting on short journey to stomach 

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Digestive System

Organs 

Stomach 

Gland - Gastric glands

Juice - Gastric Juice 

Contents - Pepsin*, hydrochloric acid. Rennin in babies 

Substrate -  Protein

End Product - Amino acids and peptides 

Other Comments - pH of gastric juice is acid for pepsin to work. Bacteria in raw food is killed by acid 

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Digestive System

Organs

Small intestines

(a) Duodenum 

Gland - Intestinal glands 

Juice - Intestinal Juice 

Contents - Peptidase. Various cardohydrates 

Substrate - Peptides 'double' molecule sugars 

End Product - Amino acids, Glucose and other simple, soluble sugars 

Other Comments - Alkaline medium (pH 8) 

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Digestive System

Organs

Small intestines

(b) Liver - an associated gland, not part of alimentary canal  

Gland - Liver

Juice - Bile

Contents - No enzymes. Bile salts. Bile pigments 

Substrate - None

End Product - None

Other Comments - Bile salts important in emulsifying lipids or fats. Converts small intestine contents from acid to alkaline 

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Digestive System

Organs

Small intestines

(c) Pancreas - an associated gland, not part of the alimentary canal 

Gland - Pancreas

Juice - Pancreatic Juice 

Contents - Lipase. Pancreatic amylase. Pancreatic protease. Alkaline salts 

Substrate - Lipids or fats. Carbohydrates. Proteins and Peptides 

End Product - Glycerolo and fatty acids. Glucose. Amino Acids 

Other Comments - An important difestive gland. Slats convert acid stomach secreations to alkaline pH so that emzymes work. 

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Digestive System

Organs 

Small intestines

(c) Ileum 

Gland - None

Juice - None

Contents - None 

Substrate - None

End Product - None

Other Comments - Main area for absorption of the end-rpoducts of digestion through millions of villi 

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Digestive System

Organs 

Large intestines

(a) Colon 

Gland - None

Juice - None

Contents - None 

Substrate - None

End Product - None

Other Comments - Main area for reabsorption of water 

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Digestive System

Organs 

Large intestines

(b) Rectum 

Gland - None

Juice - None

Contents - None 

Substrate - None

End Product - None

Other Comments - Muscular walls expel smei-solid faeces through **** at periodic intervals 

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Digestive System

Villi  The Villi increase the surface area of the small intestines.

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Digestive System

Chemical digestion of food - Carbohydrates e.g. Starch


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Digestive System

Protein


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Digestive System

Fats (Lipids) 

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Digestive System

Adaptations of absorption 

  • Dence networks of blood vessels to absorb food molecules and carry them away to the liver (via hepatic protal vein)
  • food will be detoxicified in the liver
  • Wall of the Villus is one cell think so there is only a short distance between the intestines and the blood. 
  • Branches of the lymphatic system absorb the products and the blood.
  • Microvilli - increases surface area futher. 

Absorption occurs by a mixture of diffustion and active transport. 

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Digestive system

Cause - Diabetes 

Type 1 -  Caused by the immune system distroying cells in the pancreas that make insulin. - Leaving the body with not enough insulin to funcation normally. Autoimmune reaction

There is no specific cause but somethings may trigger it:

  • Viral or bacterial infection
  • Chemical toxins within food
  • Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction
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Digestive System

Cause - Diabetes 

Type 2 - More than 1 cause involved, but it is mainly a family history in type 2 diabetes. 

There are risk factors that could develop your chances of getting Type 2 diabetes:

  • Obesity
  • Living a sedentary lifestyle 
  • Increasing age 
  • Bad diet 
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Digestive System

Diagnosis - Type 2 Diabetes 

Urine and blood tests - Urine tested for Glucose as it shouldn't be in urine, but can overflow from the kidneys if you have diabetes. If urine is found, a glucose tolerance blood test will be done to determine wheter you have it or not. 

Glucose Tolerance Blood Test - Dont eat or drink certain fluids 8-12 hours prior to the test. A Blood Glucose test will be done before the test, then given a sugary drink and the test is done again 2 hours later. 


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Digestive System

Treatment - Type 2 Diabetes 

There is no cure. Treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as normal as possible. 

Blood Glucose Testing (HbA1c) - done by a GP every 2-6 months. This will show if the treatment plan is working. 

Monitoring Yourself - "Prick test". pricking the top of your finger and draing a little bit od blood can then be read by a monitor and will say if the glucose levels are to high or to low. 

Glucose-lowering Tablets - There are many different medications that may need to be taken together to control glucose levels. The ones you take depend on your lifestyle. e.g Metaformin is gevn to overweigt people because it doesnt have the side effct of weight gain. 

Insulin injections - Normally injected 2-4 times a day. Taken if you cant control your diabetes through a chnage in your lifestyle and medication in tablet form. 

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Digestive System

Effect - Type 2 Diabetes 

 A change in diet and lifestyle choices can be hard to deal with because it involves getting out of a routine. e.g. making time to exercise, eat healthy food. 

Checking your blood sugar levels in public may cause embarrassment as the person might not want everyone to know they have diabetes. 

Visiting your GP may become annoying and interupt your day to day life and working times

Quitting smoking will add extra stress and make you want to eat more unhealthy foods, with will then effect your glucose levels. 

Small amounts of alcohol may make socializing very hard and my result in you not wanting to go out. 

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Reproductive System

The system 

- males 

- females 

Menstrual Cycle 

Fertillisatipn

Pregnancy

Birth 

Cause of Infertility 

Diagnosis

Treatment 

Effect 

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Reproductive System

Structure - Male 

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Reproductive System

Structure - Male 

  • The testes male sperm. They make it best at temperatures that are slightly cooler than body temperature - this is why they hang outside the body in the "Scrotum" 
  • The epididymis stores sperm that have been made in the testes 
  • The seminal vesicles and prostate make the white fluid called semen that contains sperm. It contains nutrients for the sperm. 
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Reproductive System

System - Female 


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Reproductive System

Structure - Female - Normal Ovary 


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Reproductive System

Menstrual Cycle (1)


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Reproductive System

Menstrual Cycle (2) 

  • Once a month, a brain hormone called LH increases in the blood stream, and the ovaries respond by releasing an Ovum from a Follicle. This is called Ovulation. The empty follicle becomes a Corpus Luteum, and sends progesterone to the uterus to thicken it for pregnancy. 
  • If there is no pregnancy, this is detected by the Corpus Luteum. It stops producing progesterone, and the lining of the uterus starts to break down. 
  • The cells in the lining break down and bleed: this is day 1 of a period. This lasts for about 5 days. 
  • The brain sends the brain hormone FSH to the ovaries to start another Ovum developing. The overies produce the hormone estrogen to re-build the lining of the uterus. On day 14, the Ovum and the lining of the uterus are ready for another ovulation. 
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Reproductive System

Fertilisation (1)

  • Fertilisation often happens around day 14 of the menstural cycle. 
     
  • Fertilisation happens when the genetic materal of the Ovum combines with the DNA of the male sperm cell. 
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Reproductive System

Fertilisation (2)

  • Sperm cells are ejaculated into the ******  
  • The male semen enters the uterus through the cervix 
  • Fertilisation of an ovum usually happens in the oviduct rather than the uterus 
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Reproductive System

Fertilisation (3)

  • The nucleus of a sperm enters the ovum
     
  • The surface of the ovum changes so that no more sperm can enter
  • The male and female DNA merge together to form a new individual that starts out as a single cell. 
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Reproductive System

Pregnancy (1)

(http://www.gynaeonline.com/images/fertilization.jpg)

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Reproductive System

Preganacy (1)

  • The new embryo starts to produce large amounts of a hormone (HCG) - this is what pregnancy tests detect. 
     
  • HCG maes the collapsed follicle produce large amounts of progesterone, which keeps the pregnancy going instead of starting a period.  
  • The Collapsed follicle is called a Corpus Luteum. 
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Reproductive System

Birth - Three stages of labour (1)

In the first stage, the uterus contracts and the baby's head gradually pushes the cervix wider with every contraction. The sac of fuild around the baby usually breaks at some point and speads up the process. 



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Reproductive System

Birth - Three stages of labour (2)

In the second stage of labout, the baby starts to come down the ******, through the pelvis. It turns from facing sideways to facing downwards to get through the bones of the pelvis. This may take more than 20 minutes. 

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Reproductive System

Birth - Three stages of labour (3) 

In the third stage, the placenta and umbilical cord leaves the uterus because the baby is now breathing air. The are "born" in the same way as a baby. This happens a few minutes fater the baby is born. 

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Reproductive System

Cause - Male Infertility 

(1) Varicocele 

This is varicose veins in the area just above the testies.

The valves of the veins fail and the veins bulge.

The blood can flow back to the testies causing poor blood flow and lack of oxygen, meanin sperm can't form normally. 

This is the most common form of male infertility.

10% of men have it, although some may be fertile.

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Reproductive System

Cause - Male Infertility 

(2) Retrograde *********** 

This is when the semen is ejaculated into the bladder instead of out through the urethra.

During *********** the sphincter muscles to the bladder should not open, but sometimes the nervous system does not co-ordinate properly, and the sperm and sement is diverted. 

This happens with some drungs, or prostate enlargement or mood disorders. 

The semen is later passed through the urine. 

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Reproductive System

Cause - Female Infertility 

(1) Blocked Oviducts 

This stops the Ovum being fertillised. 

Even if sperm does get through and fertilise the Ovum the blockage may stop it implanting in the lining of the uterus. 

Blocked Oviducts may be caused by:

Inflammation - the walls of the tube swell up and block it. - Chlamydia can cause this when caught by an infected male. 

Scar Tissue - This may block the danaged tubes.

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Reproductive System

Cause - Female Infertility 

(2) Polycytic Ovaries 

This is when the Ovaries have become full of swollen, fluid-filled follicles, but the follicles don't contain ova. 

This is mainly a hormone problem:

  • High levels of brain hormone LH
  • High levels of male hormone testosterone. (normal ovaries make very small amounts of male hormones)

This causes infertility and irregular periods and too much body-hair.

Being overweight is a major risk-factor 

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Reproductive System

                 (http://www.endocrinology-online.com/Content/For%20Patients/pcovary.gif)

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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Male 

Sperm Analysis

Includes:

  • Volume of semen
  • total number of sperm in a volume of semen (sperm count)
  • sperm mobility (total that are able to move forward)
  • number of normal and not normal sperm
  • Fructose levels (sugar) and pH (acidity) 
  • Number of white blood cells (thats that indecate infection) 

This helps as all of these are abmormal in varococele and the semen volume is abmornal in retrograde *********** 

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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Male 

Sperm anaylsis

Pros 

  • Quick and cheap to perform

Cons

  • It may not be clear why the sperm are abnormal, and this will require further investigation before treatment starts 
  • It may be embarrassing for the man. 
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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Male and Female 

Blood Tests 

Involve detecting hormone levels. 

Polycystic Ovaries - high levels of the brain hormone LH, or male hormone testosterone.

Male infertility - testosterone levels measured, and female hormone oestrogen. 

Blood test for chlamydia can be done to see if there was ever an infection. 

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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Male and Female 

Blood Tests

Pros 

  • Easy, Quick and Cheap to perform.
  • Helps discover the cause of the problems that show on scans.

Cons

  • It may not be clear why the hormone levels are unusual, and this will require further investigation before treatment starts. 
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Reproductive System

Diagonsis - Male and Female 

Ultrasound 

Provides nonsurgical way of viewing a womans organs.

Uses high frequency sound waves that tavel at different speeds through body organs and tissues. The waves are reflected back to a dectector where they are converted into a picture. 

The probe for infertility is placed in the ****** (trans******l ultrasound) 

Can detect polycystic ovaries and blocked ovaries. 

Can detect Varicocele. 

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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Female 

Hystero-salpingogram

An X-Ray test that looks at the inside of the uterus and oviducts and the area around them. 

An iodine dye is put through a thin tube into the uterus and flow in to the oviducts.

Pictures are taken and show problems and injurys in the uterus and oviducts. 

Anaesthetic is not required. 

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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Female 

Hystero-salpingogram

Pros

  • Clear pictures of any blockage in tube or other problems. 

Cons 

  • Possible damage from X-Rays 
  • It produces cramping pains, and takes about 30 minutes 
  • The dye takes days to leak out and there may be bleeding. 
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Reproductive System

Diganosis - Female 

Laparoscopy

Surgical procedure involving 1,2 or 3 cuts above the abdomen and the doctor inserts a laparoscope and specialized surgical instruments. 

Laparoscope - a thin, fibre-optic tube with a light and carmer on the end. 

Allows doctor to see abmornal organs and make small repairs, without making large incisions

Performed in a hospital under general anaesthesia 

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Reproductive System

Diagnosis - Female 

Laparoscopy

Pros

  • Clear pictures of any problems that can be seen on the surface of the organs (e.g. polycystic ovaries)
     
  • Immediate repairs may be possible (e.g. unblocking oviducts) 

Cons 

  • Anaesthetic and hospital stay required. 
  • because the body is opened, abdominal infection is possible 
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Reproductive System

Treatments 

IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) 

  • A drug suppresses the natural menstrual cycle for about two weeks. The hormone FSH is given for about 12 days. FSH increases the number of ova the ovaries produce. 36 hours before the ova are due to be collected, a hormone injection helps the ova to mature
  • Males produce a sample sperm. The sperm are washed and spun so the healthiest and most active sperm are collected. Female ova are collected under sedation using ultrasound. A Needle is inserted through the ****** and into each ovary. Ova are collected through the needle. 
  • The Ova are mixed with sperm in the lab. After 18 hours they're checked, and if unsuccessful, each ovum is injected individually with a signle sperm. Embryos grow for 1 to 5 days before transfer. The female is given progesterone to prepare the lining of the womb. 
  • Two embryos are usually placed: a fine tube is passed though the cervix, using altrasound guidance. The embryos are passed down the tube into the womb. If any embryos are left over, and they're suitable, they may be frozen for future attempts. 
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Reproductive System

Treatment

IVF

Pros

  • May be the only way of getting pregnant 
  • Suitable when both male and female fertility are low. 

Cons

  • Most women will have some reaction to the drugs. e.g. hot fluchesm headaches, abdominal bloating and pain. 
  • if more than one embryo is replaced in the womb as part of IVF treatment, there is an increased chance of producing twins, increasing the risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, premature birth, low birth weight, infant mortality.
  • IVF carries a hightened risk of sctopic pregnancys 
  • IVF treatment becomes less successful with age. Miscarriage and birth defects increase as well. 
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Reproductive System

Treatment 

Sperm Donation

  • Sperm donation is a way of overcoming male infertility. Sperm is stored outside the body, then placed artificially in the ******. 
  • The sperm usually comes from an unknown doner, whose characteristics are recored so they can be matched to the infertile couple. Donors are usually young and without known genetic disorders.
  • Samples are analysed by training scientists, they are frozen in liquid nitrogen. Stored for a maximum of 10 years. 
  • Sperm are placed using Intra Uterine Insemination. Sometimes ued in IVF. 
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Reproductive System

Treatment 

Sperm Donation 

Pros

  • Nothing apart from masturbation is needed from male. 
  • The long storage time makes it a useful proceudre under unusual circumstances. 
  • Recently used by homosexual couples 

Cons 

  • If the father cannot produce healthy sperm, the treatment has not actually solved the problem of his infertility. 
  • The fathers anonymity varies. He may or may not be traceable. 
  • The child may resemble the father and not seem a match for the rest of the family. 
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Reproductive System

Effects/Lifestyle Changes 

DO

  • Regular exercise - Improves circulatory health. However, to much exercise may make periods stop altogther. 
  • Vitamins - Getting the right amount of vitamins will help to keep your body healthy. 
  • Have one sexual partner - reduces STIs

DONT 

  • Smoking can reduce fertility, and increase the risk of miscarriage. 
  • Drink excessive amounts of alcohol. 
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Reproductive System

Effects/Lifestyle Changes 

Value of making lifestyle changes

Pro

  • Usually cheap and doesnt require profrssioinal interventions
  • Long-term benefits to fertility rather than quick-fixes.
  • Improves general health which will be important if pregnancy occurs and the couple need to look after children. 

Con

  • It requires two people to buy into the changes, with no certanity of improved fertility 
  • It may be difficult to keep up the lifestyle changes if they are disliked. 
  • Changing your lifestyle may also change your career. 
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Renal System

The System 

Production of Urine 

Dysfunction 

-Types of Kidney Stones 

Cause 

Diagnosis

Treatment 

Effect/Lifestyle Changes 

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Renal System

System 

(http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/image_article_collections/anatomy_pages/Kidney2.jpg)

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Renal System

Structure of a Kidney 

(http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_m6Z8Vc6_ZYo/SZlQvAIlzLI/AAAAAAAACLI/9OH3moXVutE/s320/8.jpg)


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Renal System

Production of Urine 

Osmoregulation - Keeping the body's water and salt balance correct. 

Sweating


Reduces water concentration of blood

Pituitary gland produces ADH 


Increases permeability of loop of henle 

More water passes back into blood 

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Renal System

Production of Urine 

Osmoregulation 

Drinking large amount of fluid

Increases water concentration of blood

No ADH produced 

Decreased permeability of loop of henle

Less water reabsored into blood 

Lots of dilute urine produced 

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Renal System

Production of Urine 


90 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

91 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

92 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

93 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

94 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

95 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

96 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

97 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

98 of 99

Renal System

Production of Urine 

99 of 99

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