Preparation and Training methods

  • Created by: AliceTori
  • Created on: 17-05-17 20:05
Quantitative data
contains factual information and numerical data
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Qualitative data
is subjective as it looks at feelings, opinions and emotions
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Rating perceived exertion (PRE)
giving an opinion of how hard you feel your body is working during exercise
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Qualitative data
is descriptive and looks at the way people think or feel
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Quantitative data
can be written down or measured with numbers
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Objective data
based upon facts and is measurable
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An example of an objective test is...
a maximal fitness test, where the performer will work at maximum effort, usually to exhaustion
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Objective tests are...
often very reliable and involve a measurement of some sort
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Subjective data
is based upon personal opinions, assumptions, interpretations and beliefs
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An example of a subjective test is...
the Harvard step test, which relies more on data that is predictive or estimated
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Subjective tests can...
lead to problems with accuracy and objectivity
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Harvard step test
involves stepping up and down on a bench to a set rhythm for five minutes. Recovery heart rates are then recorded
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when the test actually measures what is set out to do
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One important question about validity is...
'is the research method relevant and does it do exactly what it sets out to do?'
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Another important question about validity is...
'is the test sport-specific?'
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means the test can be repeated
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What should be taken into account when ensuring a test is reliable?
the tester should be experienced, the experiment should be standardised, the sequencing of tests is important, the repetition of tests to avoid human error
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Illinois agility run
a fast run around an area 10 metres in length while at the same time weaving around cones that are 3.3 metres apart, the starting point is flat on the stomach with hands beside the shoulders. The faster the time, the better the agility.
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First stage of a warm up is...
to perform some kind of cardiovascular exercise to gently increase your heart rate
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Second stage of a warm up is...
stretching and/or flexibility exercises, especially with the joints and muscles that will be most active during the training session
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Two types of stretching:
Static and Ballistic
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Static stretching has two parts...
passive stretching and active stretching
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Static stretching
when the muscle is held in a stationary position for 30 seconds or more
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Active stretching
involves the performer working on one joint, pushing it beyond its point of resistance
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Active stretching also
lengthens the muscle and connective tissue surrounding it
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Passive stretching
when a stretch occurs with the help of an external force, such as a partner or gravity
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Ballistic stretching
involves performing a stretch with swinging or bouncing movements to push a body part even further
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Ballistic stretching should only be used by...
extremely flexible individuals such as a gymnast or a dancer who will try to push their body beyond the limits of their range of movement
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The third stage of a warm up is...
involving movement patterns that are to be carried out
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Physiological effects of a warm up
reduces the possibility of injury by increasing the elasticity of muscle tissue
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Physiological effects of a warm up
releases adrenaline which increases heart rate and dilates capillaries
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Physiological effects of a warm up
muscle temperature increases which enables oxygen to dissociate more easily from haemoglobin and also increases enzyme activity
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Physiological effects of a warm up
increases the speed of nerve impulses to make us more alert and improves reaction time
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Physiological effects of a warm up
allows efficient movements at the joints through the increased production of synovial fluid
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Physiological effects of a warm up
allows for the rehearsal of movement so the performer is practising the same skills they would use in their activity
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Physiological effects of a warm up
allows mental rehearsal, stress or anxiety reduction and psychological preparation
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Physiological effects of a warm up
supplies the adequate blood flow to the heart to increase its efficiency
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Cool- down
consists of light exercise to keep the heart rate elevated
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An elevated heart rate during cool down means...
that oxygen can be flushed through the muscles therefore removing and oxidising any lactic acid that remains
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Performing light exercise during a cool down mean...
it allows your skeletal muscle pump to keep working to maintain venous return and prevents blood from pooling in the veins
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Cool-down can also result in...
limiting the effect of DOMS (the delayed onset of muscle soreness) which is characterised by tender and painful muscles
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DOMS occurs...
following excessive eccentric contractions when muscle fibres are put under a lot of strain, it mostly occurs after weight training
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Principles of training are:
Specificity, Progressive overload, Reversibility, Recovery
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important in making sure the training you are doing is relevant to your chosen activity
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Progressive overload
where the performer gradually trains harder throughout their training programme because their fitness improves
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It is important to do progressive overload...
slowly and not too soon as doing it more gradually will reduce the risk of injury
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often referred to as detraining, where, if training stops, then the adaptations that have occurred as a result of the training programme deteriorate
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a change that takes place in the body as a result of training
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is an important factor as rest days are needed to allow the body to recover from training
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FITT principles
this is a method of improving performance
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FITT stands for...
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
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to improve you need to train more often
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to improve you must train harder
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to improve the time spent training should be gradually increased
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Type of exercise
to improve you should use different forms of exercise to maintain motivation but the type chosen must be relevant to your sport
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Different types of training that could be used are:
continuous training, circuit training and fartlek training
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Type of exercise should also include...
for game players: running instead of cycling so that the muscles are engaged in a similar way in which you would use them in a game
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dividing the training year into specific sections for a specific purpose
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Elite performers use periodisation to...
improve their performance and to reduce the risk of injury
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period of training involving a long-term performance goal
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A macrocycle is made up of three distinct periods:
preparation period, competition period, transition period
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Preparation period
similar to pre-season training where fitness is developed
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Competition period
the performance period where skills and techniques are refined
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Transition period
the end of the season where rest and recovery takes place
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usually a 4 to 12 week period of training with a particular focus such as power
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the description of a week or a few days of training sessions
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reducing the volume and/or the intensity of training prior to competition
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planning and organising training so a performer is at their peak, both physically and mentally, for a major competition
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Double periodisation
some athletes need to peak more than once during a season so they must follow a double periodised year
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Continuous training
works on developing aerobic power and it involves low-intensity exercise for long periods of time without rest intervals, such as jogging, swimming or cycling
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Continuous training develops...
stamina, and places stress on the aerobic system which results in improvements in the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system
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Improvements in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems results in...
an increased ability to take up, transport and use oxygen more effectively
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Fartlek training
a slightly different method of continuous training where the pace of the run is varied to stress both the aerobic and anaerobic systems
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Fartlek training is...
a more demanding type of training and will improve an individuals stamina and recovery times
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Fartlek training offers...
more variety through the use of aerobic and anaerobic work
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Fartlek training is beneficial to...
game players where the demands of the game are constantly changing to involve both aerobic and anaerobic respiration
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Interval training
predominantly used by elite athletes to improve anaerobic power
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Interval training is...
a form of training in which periods or intervals of high-intensity work are followed with recovery periods
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Interval training is versatile because...
it can be adapted to suit a variety of anaerobic needs
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When planning an interval training session you must consider:
duration of the work interval
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When planning an interval training session you must consider:
intensity or speed of the work interval
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When planning an interval training session you must consider:
duration of the recovery period
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When planning an interval training session you must consider:
number of work intervals and recovery periods
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


is subjective as it looks at feelings, opinions and emotions


Qualitative data

Card 3


giving an opinion of how hard you feel your body is working during exercise


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


is descriptive and looks at the way people think or feel


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


can be written down or measured with numbers


Preview of the back of card 5
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