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Practical Exercise Physiology
PE revision…read more

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Principles of Training
Why undertake training?
Training is undertaken by some individuals to improve performance
through skill development and physical fitness. Others individuals take
part in training as an activity in itself ­ with a health related fitness
Training is a long-term commitment as changes take place over time.
Adaption response: the changes that occur in the body as a result of
training. This response is not immediate ­ it takes place over months.
The main principles of training:
Tedium…read more

Slide 3

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Principles of Training
Definition: making training specific to the demands of the activity.
E.g. A swimmer would benefit more from swimming than they would jogging.
The relevance and the choice of training exercise can be considered by asking questions:
Does the training exercise stress the appropriate energy system (e.g. aerobic or anaerobic) ­ the
same one being used in the activity you are training for?
Are the skills being practiced relevant to the chosen activity? (e.g. using the same skills in training as
in the activity you are training for)
Is the training using the same muscle groups as the activity you are training for?
Levels of adaption is dependent on the following factors:
Too little stress ­ little or no adaption
Too much stress ­ little or no adaption (fatigue)
The performers base level of fitness ­ a sedentary person can have a bigger range of
adaption than an elite performer as they are not fit at all.
The performers health or injury status.
The performers previous experiences with sporting stress ­ a person who has
experienced training will be able to cope with the psychological demands.
The environment where the training occurs (e.g. Higher altitude = greater adaption's)…read more

Slide 4

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Principles of Training
Definition: improvements in fitness result from exercising harder than normal.
The basic idea underlying training is that to produce performance improvements, athletes
must overload the energy systems required to perform certain movements. Overloading
refers to the fact that the workload and resistance is greater than normal.
It is basically an increase in demand to force bodily adaption.
The safest way to overload the body is to alter one of the FITT principles.
Responses from the body because of overload:
Initially, the response is fatigue.
When the loading stops there is a process of recovery ­ recovery and adaption take the athlete to a higher
level of fitness from where they started.
Fatigue recovery
Overload Improved fitness
adaption…read more

Slide 5

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Principles of Training
Definition: gradually increasing the level of workload in training as the body
adapts and fitness improves.
The idea that if you overload you will gain the adaptations of improved fitness.
Therefore, because you are fitter, you will need to overload more as time goes on
to make training harder than normal.
It also implies that there is an optimal level of overload that should be achieved,
and an optimal timeframe for this overload to occur. Overload should not be
increased too slowly or improvement is unlikely, but overload that is increased
too rapidly will result in fatigue or injury.
Makes us realise the need for proper rest and recovery ­ continual stress on the
body and constant overload will result in exhaustion and injury. Psychological
stress and damage could also occur.…read more

Slide 6

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Principles of Training
Definition: training too hard and not allowing sufficient time for the body
to adapt to training loads.
It is important not to overtrain or overload the body so much that it
experiences complete exhaustion and cannot adapt properly because
there is too much damage ­ rest is no longer adequate for recovery.
Decline in performance caused by incomplete adaption is one of the
most obvious signs of overtraining.
Additional signs of overtraining include:
Irritability and moodiness
Altered sleep patterns
Loss of appetite
Loss of motivation or competitive drive
Persistent muscle soreness
Fatigue not relieved by rest
Increased incident of illness or injury…read more

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Slide 9

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Slide 10

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Ellie Jones


This was so useful, thank you for uploading :)

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