Sport Studies - Opportunities of participation

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Outdoor education/ recreation - Danger

  • Outdoor education 
    • Outdoor pursuits e.g. Skiing in the natural environment but within an educational setting e.g. school ( school skiing trip)
  • Outdoor recreation  
    • Outdoor pursuits in the natural environment but in free time with friends e.g. a skiing holiday 
  • Objective danger 
    • Danger element e.g. avalanche 
    • performer little control 
    • More skilled are more likely to eperience objective danger 
  • Subjective danger 
    • Danger performer has some control e.g. planning a routes / a harness 
    • More possible at lower levels of participation 
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Real risk-Perceived risk

  • Real risk 
    • Risk from the natural environment - avalanche 
    • Avoide at all cost 
    • Poses risk of injury or death 
    • Can be planned/ plan a route/ fitness
  • Perceived risk 
    • Sense of danger that participant gets 
    • Can providethe excitement but everything is under comtrol e.g. harness 
    • Encouraged by leader for learning experience 
    • Develop risk assessment 
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Outdoor activities - Good/ benefits

  • Why activities increased since C20th 
    • Escape from urban enviornment 
    • Increased access by transport to isolated parts of country 
    • Media intersest/ better advertising 
    • Fashion
    • Put into school PE programmes 
    • More sedentary lifestyle 
    • More affordable 
    • Disabled adaptions 
    • Growth in organisations 
    • Wider range of sports 
  • Qualities of adventurous activities:
    • Trust 
    • Leadership 
    • Self reliance 
    • Mental toughness 
    • Apprecation of the enviornment 
    • Communication skills/ teamwork 
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  • Benefits that young people - experience activities such as canoeing & climbing 
    • Physical health and fitness 
    • Motor skills 
    • Leadership 
    • Personal skills 
    • Social skills 
    • Later life/ active leisure 
    • Appreciation of natural environment 
  • Educational values child gains 
    • Understandong of environment
    • Know personal limits
    • Trust in others
    • Self reliance 
    • Courage 
    • Cross curricla opportunities 
  • Recreational values children gain 
    • Choice
    • Escape from stress
    • Health and fitmess 
    • Intrinsic motavation / fun 
    • Sense of acheivement 
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Continued - negative/ adaptions

Negative in inner city school effective outdoor and adventurous activities:

  • Timetable constraints 
  • Cost
  • Accessibility/ transport 
  • Staff qualifications 
  • Safetly issues/ insurance 

Adaptions of sports

  • Climbing- climbing wall 
  • Orienteering- park/ school grounds
  • Canoeing/ scuba - swimming pool 
  • Windsurfing- Reservior 
  • Mountain biking- Country park 
  • Skiing- dry ski slope 
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Outdoor activities continued

Increased for disablilites 

  • Equal opportunities 
  • Organisations eg Sport England, NGB
  • Technology developments 
  • More knowledge of disablities 
  • Higher expectations 
  • Media role models/ paralympics 
  • Special school programmes 
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Characteristics of mob games 

  • Local 
  • Unstructured in terms of boundaries 
  • Rules were few
  • Male 
  • Working class
  • Violent
  • Limited equipments 
  • Played occasionally 

Social factors cause decline of mob games 

  • Banned by authorities 
  • Lack of space in urban areas 
  • Need for disciplined work force/ time off work due to injuries/ lack of free time/ machine led
  • Rationalising 
  • Develooped in public schools 
  • M.Class encouraged rational forms of recreation/ factory/ church teams 

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Characteristics of rational recreation

  • Regular participation/ lots of free time 
  • Complex, writtern rules 
  • Highly structured in nature 
  • Being spectator based as well as participation based 
  • The need to use refined skill rather than force 
  • NGBs/ Clubs 
  • Sophisticated equipment and facilities 
  • Teams wear kit
  • Goal posts 
  • Officials 

Meant term rational recreation 

  • Played regularly
  • Rules- complex
  • Behaviour- etiquette
  • Highly structured- set times
  • Skill- refined
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Why were majority sport rationlised in C19th 

  • Society becoming more civilised/ manners
  • M. class were control of society's values
  • Industrailisation 
  • Era of social reform 
  • Mass of population needed entertraining 
  • Lack of space meant no room for old popular recreaions 
  • Administration needed as more clubs 

Industrailisation lead to initial reduction and late improvements 

  • Reduction 
    • Long working hours
    • No daylight hours
    • Sunday- day of rest 
    • Loss of traditional holy days 
    • Poor health
    • Low income 
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  • Improvements 
    • Less working hours
    • Saturday half day= afternoon of sport
    • Early closing Wednesday 
    • Factory owners encourage sport 
    • Better wages 
    • Transport- train allowed fixtures 
    • Broke time payments 
    • Public provisions 

Developments NGB feature C19th- Why did NGB emerge then such as football association 

  • Sport such as football become more popular
  • Needed administrative organisations 
  • To oversee rules
  • Organise competitions 
  • Eligibility 
  • Interest 
  • More and more clubs being formed 
  • Old boys wanting to continue participation 
  • Working class establishing own control 
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Spread of Sport

Factors increasing leisure time 

  • Social attitude changed 
  • Working hours reduced
  • Increased status of leisure 
  • Labour saving gadgets 
  • Increase life expectancy 
  • More accessible facilities 
  • Early retirement 
  • Unemployment 
  • Job share 

Increase leisure opportunities 

  • Saturday half day 
  • Early closing wednesday 
  • Bank holidays
  • Factory act 
  • More public provision e.g. park/ baths
  • Increase intransport especially railways 
  • Access to seaside 
  • Developments in education 
  • Ddevelopments in spectator facilities 
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Spread of sport

  • More disposable income enabled working classes to e.g. afford equipment
  • M.Classes encouraged working classes in rational recreation

What features british society in C19th aloowed sport to develop to its modern form? 

  • First industrailised country in the world 
  • Urban population 
  • Gradually increasing leisure time 
  • Lack of space= less facilities for masses to participate 
  • Spectator sport develop
  • Public scjools rationalised sport
  • Admin structure development 
  • Commercialisation 
  • Distinct social class system 
  • Athleticism/ muscular christinaity 
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Spread of sport

Impact railway as transport how development of recreational and sport activities in UK?

  • More mvt of teams and spectators 
  • Local to regional to national to international 
  • Affordable 
  • Transport of animals e.g horse racing 
  • Day trips to the seaside 
  • Access to countryside 
  • Development of rambling 
  • Escape from polluted cities 

Imapct of development of sport; - in transport and communication and emergence in M.class

  • Developments in tranport & communication 
    • Rail allowed transport of teams and spectators
    • Competitions became regional and national 
    • Access to countryside 
    • Roads development in cycling clubs 
    • Role models
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Spread of sport

  • M.classes
    • Gave moral focus to sport
    • e.g. etiquette
    • Banned popular recreations etc mob football
    • Organisers/ NGB
    • Work team 
    • Established their own sport for their own identity e.g. lawn tennis 

Provision of leisure facilities e.g. parks and bath during victorian era and continues today with local authorities. Why were such facilities provided

  • Health 
  • Morale of population 
  • Civilising of society
  • Social control 
  • Prestige of local council 
  • Social justice
  • Expectations of community
  • Economic benefits 
  • Part of wider social policy 
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Spread of sport

How and why did the Church develop leisure opportunities for British sport

  • Why
    • Social control
    • Wanted to improve morals of working classes
    • Improve health 
    • Recruitment 
  • How
    • Encouraged rational 
    • Allowed Sunday school clubs/ teams e.g. Everton
    • Boys Brigade 
    • Provided facilities e.g. church halls 
    • YMCA developed volleyball and basketball 
    • Encouraged link between Christianity- military- physical-/ muscular christianity 
    • Clergy
    • Services put on for ramblers/ cyclist 
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Public schools and sport

Why boys in Public schools encouraged to play sport 

  • Occupy boy's free time
  • Discipline 
  • Leadership
  • Develop athleticism amoung boys
  • Sportmanship
  • Promote teamwork 
  • Develop muscluar chritsianity
  • Character building 

Explain social and physical benefits gained by boys through by playing games 

  • Physical 
    • Hard pysical work 
    • Bravery 
    • Break from study 
    • Stress relief 
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Public schools and sport

  • Social 
    • Team work 
    • Abiding by rules/ sportsmanship
    • Respect opponent 
    • Test of temperament 
    • Leadership 

How C19th contribute technical development of 'rational recreation'

  • Rules 
  • Inter house 
  • Training
  • Skills 
  • Leadership
  • Kit
  • Intro officials
  • Division between players and spectators 
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Public schools and sport

Why headmasters encouraged boys to excel in games 

  • Social control
  • Prestige of the school 
  • Sportmanship/ Rational sport promoted m.class values 
  • Health/ fitness 
  • Muscular Christianity 
  • Learn how to win and lose with honour 

Explain how team games in public schools reflected and prepare boys for lifestyle and M and U. class

  • Recreational activity 
  • Required expensive facilities 
  • Leadership role e.g. Captain 
  • Encouraged decision making 
  • Understanding team spirit 
  • Gentlemanly conduct 
  • Character building/ bravery/ courage 
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Public schools and sport

What aspects of character building to develop when encouraging boys to participate in sporting activities 

  • Loyalty 
  • Teamwork 
  • Leadership Courage 
  • Self discipline 
  • Decisions making 
  • Win and lose with honour 

Why majority sports rationalised in C19th

  • Society becoming more civilised 
  • Upper/ middle class controlled society 
  • Industrailisation- needed for discipline workforce 
  • Era of social refrom 
  • Role of church
  • Lack of space meant no room for popular recreation 
  • Melting pot/ NGB
  • Transport and communication developed 
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Public schools and sport

Characteristics of state and public schools C19th

  • State 
    • Day/ local 
    • Free to go to 
    • Mixed ages and sexes 
    • Poor cramped facilities 
    • For working class 
    • Physical activity included military drill 
  • Public
    • Boarding 
    • Sinlge sex/ boys 
    • Fee paying 
    • Middle upper class 
    • Sophisticated facilities 
    • Fagging 
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Public schools and sport

Technical and moral developments 

  • Technical 
    • Lots of time 
    • Developed rules 
    • Devloped structure e.g. time/ boudaries/ officials 
    • Division of labour e.g. attack and defence 
    • Equipment changes 
    • Competition 
  • Moral 
    • Code of behaviour 
    • Sportsmanship
    • Leadership
    • Win and lose with honour 
    • Respect opponent 
    • Athleticism 
    • Teamwork 
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Public schools and sport

Public and uni influence developments and how spread into society 

  • Development of games 
    • Developed rules 
    • Competitions 
    • Training 
    • Skills 
    • Leadership
    • Kit to define teams 
    • Ethics
    • Uni 
      • Acts as a melting pot
      • Codification 
      • More variety 
      • Higher standards 
  • Spread in society 
    • Factory/ church teams
    • Provided facilities- employers
    • Officers to troops 
    • Old boy/ Old girl network 
    • Clubs 
    • Teachers to schools 
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History/development- PE- State schools

Aims and characteristics of military drill 

  • Characteristics 
    • Free standing/ no equipment 
    • Standing in regimented rows 
    • Taught by NCOs
    • Adult exercise for children 
    • static 
    • Marching 
    • Mixed ages 
  • Aims 
    • To develop fitness/ health 
    • Preparation for war/ work 
    • Familitary of weapons 
    • Obedience 
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History/development-PE- State schools

How did the role PE teacher change, from teaching drill style gymnastics to teaching educational gymnastics from the Moving and Growing programme of the 1950s 

  • Use to follow a set syllabus 
  • Used not to be trained/ specialist
  • Used to use instructional style of teaching 
  • Little interaction with children
  • Now plans own work 
  • Now has to be qualified 
  • Now more guidance 
  • Now more interaction

What Therapuetic and how incorported within PE since C19th 

  • Means improve health or equiv
  • Via swedish gymnastics 
  • Syllabuses of physical training 
  • Education gymnastics
  • national curriculum 
  • Health related fitness 
  • Awareness need of a healthy lifestyle 
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History/development-PE- State schools

Schools prepare to make leisure effectively. Social factors that led to this development 

  • Leisure time was increasing 
  • Flexible working hours 
  • Social control 
  • Raising of school leaving age 
  • Rising obesity 
  • Growing use of community facilities 
  • Post school gap 

What changes occur within PE between 1933  and before into National curriculum in 1988

  • Dance/ skilled based 
  • Child centred 
  • Programmes for prmiary schools - moving and growing programme
  • Imaginative 
  • Better facilities 
  • Interactive -teaching 
  • Teachers now specialist 
  • Non competitive emphasis 
  • Less medical focus  
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History/development-PE- State schools

Gvmt intro syllabuses of Physical Training and what changes occured between syllabus of 1904 and 1933

  • Reasons 
    • Uniformity across a country 
    • Government wanted more control 
    • Teachers not trained 
    • Needed to improve health/ fitness of working class 
  • Changes 
    • Less tables / recognition of ages 
    • More variety / small games/ equipment 
    • More interaction in lessons 
    • More free movement 
    • More fun 
    • More group work 
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History/ development- PE- State schools

Similarities and differences between moving and growing and concept of play 

  • Similarities 
    • Intrinsic/ fun/ enjoyment 
    • Learning through mvt 
    • Interaction with other children 
    • Problem solving 
    • Negotiation with others 
    • Freedom of movement 
  • Difference 
    • Teacher guilding the task 
    • Formal educational objective 
    • Less choice/ less spontaneous 
    • Kit/ unifrom 
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History/ development- PE- State schools

Similarities and differences between state school 1904-1918 and national curriculum of PE

  • Similarities 
    • Both centralised 
    • Both concerned with health promotion 
    • Both compulsory 
    • Both preparation for life after school 
  • Differences- Early syllabus 
    • Limited curriculum breadth 
    • Little no difference between sexes and ages 
    • Command style/ drilled 
    • Obedience training 
    • Preparation role in the factory 
    • No concern for individuals 
  • National syllabus
    • Greater variety of activities 
    • Child centred 
    • Interaction encouraged 
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History/ development- PE- State schools

Explain how and why gymnastics has developed to meet the changing ideas in education since C19th 

  • Swedish Gymnastics 
  • Therapeutic function 
  • Popular in state schools 
  • Free standing 
  • Included syllabuses of PT 
  • Free movement 
  • Children given stimulus/ individual response
  • Can respond according to ability 
  • Olympic gymnastics/ badges e.g. BAGA awards 
  • Sport Acrobatic 
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History/ development- PE- State schools

Changes occur in PE following War II andprior to National curriculum encourage more mvt based approach 

  • Educational gymnastics/ problem solving/ creativity/ child-centred 
  • Moving and growing/ planning programme
  • Rebuilding of facilities with apparatus 
  • Greater range of activities 
  • De-centralised/ greater teacher decisions 
  • Specialised teachers 
  • Greater emphasis of skill 

Characteristics of PE in Post world warII before intro of National Curriculum 

  • Moving and growing
  • Varied content/ gymnastic/ dance 
  • Element of play 
  • Better facilities/ equipment 
  • Recognition of different ages 
  • Use of group work 
  • Decentralised lesson/ more freedom for teachers 
  • More enjoybale 
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value

Characteristics and objective Voluntary sector 

  • Characteristics 
    • Run by member/ AGM 
    • Possibly on trust/ charity based 
    • Fianced by members' fees/ fundraising 
    • Runs on profit- loss but profit not an overriding concern 
  • Objectives 
    • Provide for grass roots of sport
    • Tried to increase participation / look for talent 
    • Meet up with people with similar interest 
  • Public sector 
    • Open to all/ social need/ policy and run by local authorities 
  • Private sector
    • Exclusive/ ability to pay/ make a profit/ commerical business e.g. private fitness centre
  • Main sectors 
    • Public 
    • Private 
    • Voluntary
    • Education
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value


  • Private e.g.private fitness club 
    • Privately owned registered companies 
    • Trading on normal profit
    • Managed by owners and their employees 
    • Exlusive 
    • Higher membership fees 
  • Voluntary e.g. Local netball club
    • Business operation owned by members 
    • Trade on normal profit/ loss/ break even 
    • Managed by members committee 
    • Financed by members subs/ match fees 
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value

Outline main features of Best value 

  • Consider best value for money 
  • Best Value experiences they offer 
  • Work with sport england 
  • Set standards
  • measure success 
  • Review expectation

Disadvantages could rise having different providers for sport and physical recreation 

  • Bureaucracy/ Red tape 
  • Facility usage 
  • Money is fragmented 
  • Differing philosophies 
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value

Ways community benefit from improved sport and recreation provision (reducing crime rates)

  • Health/Fitness
  • Employment 
  • Regeneration 
  • Educations/ new skills 
  • Community developments 
  • Equal opportunities

Why UK Gvmt increasingly developed specific policies encourage participation in sport 

  • Sport seen as important part of society/ people expect it 
  • Improves health and fitness of the population 
  • Helps prevent crime 
  • Increases medal winners
  • Creates employment 
  • 2012 Olympics 
  • Contributes to education policies 
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value

Private fitness club the advantages and disadvantages 

  • Advantages 
    • More Choice 
    • Better quality facilities
    • Elitist 
    • More opportunity to keep fit and healthy 
    • Competitive market= deals for customers
    • Personal trainers 
    • Special deals/ family membership
  • Disadvantages 
    • More costly 
    • Some may not be able to afford/ elitist 
    • Get out for authoritites 
    • Public services could suffer 
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value

Characteristics private sector

  • Privately owned companies/ businesses 
  • Trading on normal profit/ loss
  • Managed by owners 
  • Exculsive/ better facilities 
  • Higher membership fees 

Public sector characteristics

  • Business run by local authority/ council 
  • For local community use 
  • Trading at set prices 
  • Subsidised by tax 
  • Managed by LA employees 
  • Facilities not as good as private sector 
  • Can be 'pay as you go' 
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Public/ Private/ Voluntary/ Best Value

Main features of best value 

  • Consider best value for money 
  • Use of private sector methods to achieve 
  • Find out what local people want and expect 
  • Measure success/ compete
  • Reveiw challenge 

How Public sector increased participation in lower socio-economic groups 

  • Advertising/ publicity/ role model 
  • Reduced costs/ entry fees
  • Taster/ sampling sessions 
  • More inner city facilities 
  • School extra- curricular sessions 
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