Nutrition & Malnutrition (2.2.1)

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What are heterotrophs?
Animals that rely on eating other organisms to obtain organic nutrients as they cannot make their own.
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What are autotrophs?
Organisms that use simple inorganic molecules to make organic ones by photosynthesis.
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How much energy should you have a day?
The amount of energy in the diet should approximately equal the amount of energy used by the body each day.
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What are the main nutrients that the body needs?
Carbohydrates. Proteins. Lipids. Vitamin A. Vitamin C. Vitamin D. Iron. Calcium. B-vitamins. Water. Fibre.
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What do carbohydrates do?
Provide energy, released by respiration in body cells. Found in bread, rice and potatoes. Starches are better than sugars as they take longer to digest.
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What do proteins do?
Help the formation of new cells and tissues and important substances including haemoglobin and collagen. Found in meat, eggs and fish. 8 amino acids are essential to the diet.
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What do lipids do?
Make cell membranes & steroid hormones. Provide energy when broken down in respiration. Found in dairy products, red meat and oily fish. Foods containing lipids are also a good source of fat-soluble vitamins.
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What does vitamin A do?
Making rhodopsin- a pigment found in the eye, essential for vision. Found in meat, egg yolks and carrots.
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What does vitamin C do?
Makes collagen. Found in citrus fruits, blackcurrants and potatoes.
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What does vitamin D do?
Helps formation of bones and teeth. Found in dairy, oily fish and egg yolks.
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What does iron do?
Helps the formation of haemoglobin. Found in meat, beans and chocolate.
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What does calcium do?
Involved in bone formation and blood clotting. Found in dairy products and fish. Lack of calcium can increase risk of osteoporosis.
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What do B-vitamins do?
They are needed for enzymes to function.
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What does water do?
Needed for cellular reactions and transport of substances in the blood.
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What does fibre do?
Indigestible, needed to keep food moving through the gut.
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Why is it difficult to give advice on energy intake?
It varies a lot from person to person as it depends on activity levels and metabolic rate.
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What proportions of the food group should you have?
57% carbohydrates. 30% fats. 13% protein.
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What is malnutrition?
This refers to any diet which is seriously unbalanced.
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What is obesity defined as?
Having a BMI over 30.
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How is BMI calculated?
mass (kg) divided by height (m) squared.
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Give a criticism of BMI.
Muscle weighs more than fat, so a fit muscly person could have a high BMI.
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How does obesity result?
From consistently eating too much energy-containing food. The spare energy in the food is stored as fat in adipose tissue underneath the skin and around the vital organs.
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What is described as apple-shaped?
Where fat is stored around the middle.
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What is described as pear-shaped?
Where fat is stored around the hips and thighs.
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Card 2

Front

What are autotrophs?

Back

Organisms that use simple inorganic molecules to make organic ones by photosynthesis.

Card 3

Front

How much energy should you have a day?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the main nutrients that the body needs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do carbohydrates do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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