UNIT 2 BIOLOGY NOTES

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  • Created on: 29-05-13 11:18
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Module 1: Biological Molecules
2.1.1
(a) Describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules,
and relate this, and other properties of water, to the roles of water in
living organisms (HSW1)
Wh en
a weak
int
eract
ion
occurs
w her
ever
mo lecul
es
contai
n sl
i
g ht
ly
negati
vel
y
char
g ed
atom
bonde d
to
sl
ight
ly
posit
ivel
y char
ged hydr
ogen.
Wa ter
mo l
ecul
es
hydr
o gen
bond
w i
th
each ot
her
extensi
vely.
Wa t
er
is
descr
ibed
a s
a pol
ar
molecul
e.

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Page 2

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Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid
Al
l
amno aci
ds
have t
he
same basi
c st
ruct
ure.…read more

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A mino aci
d s
joined e nd t
o en d give
repeati
ng backbone
N C C N C C N C C N C C (FO U R AMIN O A CIDS)
(c) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage of
peptide bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of dipeptides and
polypeptides
A
condensati
on r
eacti
on
b et
w een
the
acid
group
of
one
of
the
amino
aci
d and
t
he amino
group
of
another…read more

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The
funct
ion
of
each pr
otei
n i
s deter
mined by
it
s st
ruct
ure.
The
str
uctur
e of
each
pr
otei
n i
s det
ermined
fi
rst
ly
by i
ts
amino aci
d sequence.
The
unique
amino
acid
sequence
of
a pol
ypepti
de or
pr
o t
ein
is
cal
led
it
s pr
imary
str
uctur
e.…read more

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Explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term quaternary structure, with
reference to the structure of haemoglobin
Q ua t
ernary str
u ct
u re
refers to
the f
a ct
t
ha t
some pr
otei
n s
a re ma de up of
mo r
e
than
one po l
yp eptide
s ubun i
t j
o i
ned t
og et
he r,
or
a pol
yp eptide and an inor
g ani
c
c omp onent.…read more

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Page 7

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Wide
range of
amino
acid
const
it
uent
s Approxi
ma t
ely
35% o f
t
he molecul
e's
i
n pr
imary
str
ucture pr
imary
str
u ct
ure
is
one t
ype of
amino
aci
d (
glyci
ne)
Contai
ns
a prost
heti
c gr
oup haem Does not
have
a prost
heti
c gr
o up
Much of
t
he mo l
ecul
e i
s wound
int
o Mu ch of
t
he
mo l
ecule
consist
s…read more

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Funct
ionIt
i
s st
ore
in
chlor
oplasts
and el
sewher
e i
n
the
plant
cel
l
in
me mbrane
bound
star
ch gr
a i
ns.
The cel
ls
of
stor
age or
gans (
e.g.
pot
ato t
ubers)
contai
n a
lot
of
st
arch
grai
ns.
S t
arch
can be br
oken down
to
glucose
mo l
ecules,
which
ma y
t
hen be
respi
red t
o r
elease
ene r
gy.…read more

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Bi
uret
t
est
­ I
f
protei
ns pr
esen t
t
urns
li
l
a c.
R educi
ng sugar
­ Heat
wit
h Benedict
's
(
80degrees)
i
f
present
blue
to r
ed.Non r
ed uci
ng sugar
If
RS negati
ve,
boil
wi
th
HCL,
neutr
ali
se wi
th sodi
um hydrogen car
b onat
e,
repeat
B enedi
ct'
s t
est.…read more

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F r
ee
DN A
n ucl
eoti
des
bind
to
t
heir
compleme nt
ary base
pair.
CO VALEN T
b onds
form bet
w een
the
phosphate
of
one
nucleoti
de and t
he sugar
of
the next
t
o seal
the
backbone.
C ont
inues
all
t
he way al
ong t
he
mo l
ecule unt
il
t
w o
new
str
and s
for
me d.…read more

Comments

Eamonn

perfect revision notes

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