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Module 1: Biological Molecules

2.1.1

(a) Describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules,
and relate this, and other properties of water, to the roles of water in
living organisms (HSW1)

Wh en
a weak
int
eract
ion
occurs
w her
ever
mo lecul
es
contai
n sl
i
g…

Page 2

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(b) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid

Al
l
amno aci
ds
have t
he
same basi
c st
ruct
ure.
They
all
have
an ami
no
grouo
at
one
end
of
the
mo l
ecul
e,
an
aci
d gr
ou p
at…

Page 3

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A mino aci
d s
joined e nd t
o en d give
repeati
ng backbone
N C C N C C N C C N C C (FO U R AMIN O A CIDS)

(c) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage of
peptide bonds in…

Page 4

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The
funct
ion
of
each pr
otei
n i
s deter
mined by
it
s st
ruct
ure.
The
str
uctur
e of
each
pr
otei
n i
s det
ermined
fi
rst
ly
by i
ts
amino aci
d sequence.
The
unique
amino
acid
sequence
of
a pol
ypepti…

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(g) Explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term quaternary structure, with
reference to the structure of haemoglobin

Q ua t
ernary str
u ct
u re
refers to
the f
a ct
t
ha t
some pr
otei
n s
a re ma de up of
mo r
e…

Page 6

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C ol
lagen
is
a f
ibr
ou s
prot
ein.
A col
lagen molecul
e i
s made up
of
three
p ol
ypepti
de
chains wound ar
ound
each other.
I
t
looks
li
ke
a t
w i
sted
rope.
Each
o f
t
hree
chains
is…

Page 7

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Wide
range of
amino
acid
const
it
uent
s Approxi
ma t
ely
35% o f
t
he molecul
e's

i
n pr
imary
str
ucture pr
imary
str
u ct
ure
is
one t
ype of
amino
aci
d (
glyci
ne)
Contai
ns
a prost
heti
c gr…

Page 8

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br
anched
amyl
opect
in.


Funct
ionIt
i
s st
ore
in
chlor
oplasts
and el
sewher
e i
n
the
plant
cel
l
in
me mbrane
bound
star
ch gr
a i
ns.
The cel
ls
of
stor
age or
gans (
e.g.
pot
ato t
ubers)
contai
n…

Page 9

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Bi
uret
t
est
­ I
f
protei
ns pr
esen t
t
urns
li
l
a c.
R educi
ng sugar
­ Heat
wit
h Benedict
's
(
80degrees)
i
f
present
blue
to r
ed.Non r
ed uci
ng sugar

If
RS negati
ve,
boil
wi
th
HCL,…

Page 10

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pai
rs
break
a par
t,
and t
he
bases are
exposed.
F r
ee
DN A
n ucl
eoti
des
bind
to
t
heir
compleme nt
ary base
pair.
CO VALEN T
b onds
form bet
w een
the
phosphate
of
one
nucleoti
de and t
he sugar
of…

Comments

Eamonn

perfect revision notes

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