Transmission of communicable diseases

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  • Transmission of communicable diseases
    • Direct
      • Animals
        • direct conact
          • skin to skin contact
            • atlete's foot
          • contact of body fluids
            • bacterial meningitis
        • inoculation
          • through a break in the skin
          • e.g. animal bite - rabies
          • e.g. shared needles - septicaemia
        • ingestion
          • taking in contaminated food/ drink
          • transferring pathogens from hands to mouth
      • Plants
        • direct contact of a health plant with any part of a disease plant
          • ring rot
          • Tobacco Mosaic Virus
          • potato blight
          • black sigatoka
    • Indirect
      • Animals
        • Fomites
          • inanimate objects
            • e.g. bedding/ socks/ cosmetics
        • Airborne
          • saliva and mucus expelled when coughing/ sneezing/ talking
            • influenza, tuberculosis
        • Vectors
          • transmit communicable pathogens from one host to another
            • e.g. Anopheles mosquito - malaria
      • Plants
        • Soil contamination
          • infective plants leave bacteria/ viruses/ spores in soil
        • Vectors
          • wind
          • water
          • animals
    • Factors affecting transmission of diseases
      • Animals
        • overcrowding
        • malnutrition
        • compromised immune system
          • e.g. from HIV/AIDS or immunosuppressant drugs
        • socioeconomic factors
          • trained health workers
          • public warning
      • Plants
        • overcrowding
        • poor mineral nutrition
        • damp, warm conditions
          • increase survival and spread of spores
        • climate change
          • increased rainfall and wind increases spread of disease

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