OCR F212 Diet and Food Production

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Module 2: Food and Health
2.2.1 Diet and Food Production
(a) define the term balanced diet
A balanced diet is a diet that contains appropriate amounts of all necessary nutrients required for healthy growth
and activity. This includes:
Carbohydrates ­ for energy
Fats ­ for energy and insulation
Proteins ­ for growth and repair
Fibre ­ helps with the digestive system
Minerals/Vitamins ­ essential for body functions/chemical processes
Water ­ essential for body function and for transport
Health is about:
Having a good nutrition
Being free from disease
Having a good wellbeing (physical, mental and social )
Having suitable housing
(b) explain how consumption of an unbalanced diet can lead to malnutrition with reference to obesity
Malnutrition is having a lack of proper nutrition, caused by not an unbalanced diet ­ not having enough to eat or
not eating enough of the right things.
Obesity is when a person's body weight is 20% or more than the recommended weight for their height. It's caused
by:
Eating too much
Doing sufficient exercise
Energy intake is more than energy use
Having an unbalanced diet consisting mostly of fats, sugars, carbohydrates and alcohol
Obesity is thought to be the most important dietary factor in the following health problems:
Cancer
Cardiovascular disease
Type 2 diabetes
You can measure whether a person is obese or not using their BMI (Body
Mass Index):
BMI = mass (in kg)
(height in m)2
BMI Category
<18.5 Underweight
18.5 ­ 25 Normal/Healthy
Weight
>25 Overweight
>30 Obese
Problems with BMI ­ why might someone be placed in the wrong health category based on BMI score?
There are differences between male and female :
o Women have a higher percentage of body fat
o A woman may be pregnant
BMI doesn't measure actual fat
o The person may have more/less muscle/bone than normal
o Muscle/bone is heavier than fat

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Module 2: Food and Health
BMI is only for adults
(c) discuss the possible links between diet and coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the result of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the deposition of fatty substances
in the walls of coronary arteries. It narrows the size of the lumen restricting blood flow to the heart muscle,
which may cause oxygen starvation .
The endothelium (inner lining) of the artery can become damaged .…read more

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Module 2: Food and Health
(e) explain that humans depend on plants for food as they are the basis of all food chains
Plants start off all food chains . They carry out photosynthesis , where they convert light energy into
chemical energy absorb carbon dioxide from the air and make carbohydrates .…read more

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Module 2: Food and Health
(i) describe the advantages and disadvantages of using microorganisms to make food for human
consumption
Microorganisms can spoil food in 4 ways:
Visible growth colonies of Mucor and Penicillium can grow on food turning it either black or
blue/green .
External digestion process they release enzymes into the food and absorb the nutrients released by
breakdown of the food molecules and the food eventually will be reduced to a mush .…read more

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Module 2: Food and Health
Freezing Slows down reactions taking place in microorganisms so growth and reproduction is slow
Heat
Kills microorganisms, e.g.…read more

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