Mao's China

What happened at the 1911 Revolution?
The Qing Dynasty was overpowered and the society of China plunged into chaos. Warlords took over areas and rivaled for power until roughly 1921 when Chiang-Kai-shek defeated them and brought in the GMD Nationalist party.
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What happened during the Nanking decade?
Between 1927-1937, Chiang-Kai-shek established political stability and tried to destroy the Communist party. He centered them to Jiangxing, where he denied resources to kill them off.
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What was the Long March?
In 1934, 100000 communists embarked on a march to Yanan to escape persecution- only 20000 survived. Here they could gain strength and adpat their ideology
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How did the Japanese invasion impact China? (1937)
The communists and the nationalists formed a united front to combat Japanese invasion. After Pearl Harbour, the Americans aided the Chinese army- whilst Chiang asked for the US Army to help destroy the communists.
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Why and what happened after Japanese retreat?
Japanese troops retreated after atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima, American troops also retreated as they were only fighting the Japanese and encouraged the GMD and the CCP to form a coalition goverment. They refused and civil war broke out
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How did the civil war of 1946 end?
Chiang rushed into a full-scale attack on communist occupied Manchuria whereas Mao had been developing guerilla war tactics. The CCP gradually moved south to conquer Nationalist areas. Chiang fled to Taiwan, and the CCP was left in control of China.
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What were the rectification campaigns?
The first set of purges and distrust within the CCP, officials denounced in other in an attempt to cleanse the party of non-Communists. Mao blamed executions to people at grass-roots l
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What was the state of industry like in 1949?
Due to years of war from 1931 and the Great Depression output was low. Japanese bombing raids has cause serious damage to factories and resources were low due to the scorched earth. In 1949 it stood at about 25% of it's pre-war level
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What is scorched earth and how did it occur?
These were war tactics that involved destroying earth, resources and infrastructure in the course of retreating to prevent enemies from following and using them.
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What was the state of agriculture in 1949?
Peasants had been conscripted during the war, so no fields were harvested and food requisitioning had led to famine. And this continued to be a problem due to the size of the PLA and the urban population
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What was the state of the economy in 1949?
Money was in hyperinflation, in 1949 the rate stood at 1000% and Chiang-Kai-shek fled with most of China's gold
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What was the structure for Sino-government before 1954?
The CPPCC was set up to replace the GMD they were appointed by the Central's People's Government and steered China for the next five years
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What is the common program?
In 1949 under the temporary governmental body, it was the new constitution that declared China had turned into a socialist state- it guaranteed a range of personal freedoms however in reality the PLA controlled most sectors of society
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How was the political system structured after 1954?
The National People's Congress replaced the Common Program as the new legislature and the CPPCC now remained as an advisory body for this. State council was now the supreme body in charge of decision making although the Politburo still controlled it.
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Why did Mao fear growing bureaucracy?
He feared they would slow down the rate of revolution because their main aim was securing their jobs. He believed it would affect the dynamic nature of change, as bureaucrats tended to follow the rules and laws
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How prominent was the role of the CCP in the state?
Although it seemed as if the state had all power, many official knew that real power lay with the CCP. Many had jobs in both sectors, like Mao who was Party Leader and Head of State (which he backed down from in 1958 as he could still make decisions)
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What was the role of a Party Cadre?
Cadres reported on disloyalty to the party and Mao, they also led danwei's to control work and pay of the nation.
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What was the role of the PLA?
They consumed 40% of state fund as they were such a prominent force during the Japanese and Civil wars. They were reduced in number by Peng Dehaui and were rebuilt to be more elite and specialised. In 1956, they aided peasants
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What were Mao's main ideas?
Nationalism, Continuance of the revolution, Mass Mobilisation and Listening to the People
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What is democratic centralism?
Delegates from lower levels are chosen to represent the views of their towns at higher levels. Although senior officals were seen to be trained in knowing what was best for the party so could bypass advice from party delegates when making decisions
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How did the Korean War begin?
In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea (backed by the USSR), so the USA aided South Korea. Mao feared US military would cross the border into China so sent in army troops to help North Korea fight off the Americans
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What were political impacts of the Korean War?
Mao could justify an increased terror because he was just tightening control ready for US invasion. Local leaders could organise attacks and eager workers were happy to stamp out nationalists
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What were the nationalist impacts of the Korean War?
Mao insisted that the nation defend Korea and battle American 'devils'. Zhou Enlai orchestrated protests and parades against Americans which provided a sense of unity and showed other countries China's nationalism was strong.
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How did Mao and the CCP brainwash the PRC into thinking the US were to be feared during the Korean War?
In 1952 the CCP declared Americans were dropping germ infested insects and animals into Manchuria which fuelled hatred towards 'foreign devils'.
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What was the human impact of the Korean war?
It is estimated that around 1 million died, even Mao's own son died which shows that Chinese ideology counts for more than human lives
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What was the economic impact of the Korean War?
The economy was entirely re-routed to support the army. 30% less food was supplied because the US weren't trading. Food continued to be requistioned from the countryside
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Which countries/areas posed as threats to Mao?
Japan, Chiang retreated there with his army and was backed by the USA. Tibet, wanted independence bc of cultural differences and Mao feared this would cause India to invade
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What was the laogai system?
Labelled as places on re-education, mirrored the use of gulag's in the USSR- they acted as punishment and free labour for the state (especially taken advantage of during the GLF). By 1953 there were over 2 million labourers/prisoners
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What were thought reform trials?
Though reform trials were a way of torturing labourers in labour camps. They were struggle sessions where prisoners beat up others as a way of denouncing them and proving loyalty to the revolution
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How many people passed through labour camps from 1949-76?
25 million prisoners, with some disappearing after the 1955 population increase
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What were re-unification campaigns?
They consisted of three campaigns in Guangdong, Xinjiang and Tibet
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How did the reunification effect Xinjiang?
In 1949, Xinjiang was controlled by a co-alition government called KMT, the PLA pressured them to surrender and by 1950 controlled most of the region. Senior KMT members had similar positions in the CCP
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How did the reunification campaign effect Guangdong?
Guangdong was the original GMD base, however the PLA takeover only took 2 weeks to be in effect and the region surrendered to communist rule
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How did the re-unification campaign affect Tibet?
It operated as independent state from 1913 and once India was free from Britain's empire they were no longer offered protection and in 1950 the PLA invaded and Han settlers were sent to educate the Tibetans
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How did Mao create a labelling system?
All households had to register to root out nationalist sympathisers, each worker was assigned to a danwei (denied ration cards to improve loyalty). Every person had a class label (red or black)
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How was a crackdown on crime introduced?
Police were ordered to relocate criminals, beggars and prostitutes. Triads were also targeted. Thus increasing the laogai population
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What triggered the Anti Movements?
The execution of two CCP officials for embezzlement. This lead to meetings where officials denounced their colleagues and many investigations were carried out against CCP members
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What did the 3-Anti-Movement target?
Corruption, waste and delay
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Who were flies and who were tigers?
Flies were party officials accused of small scale embezzlement and tigers embezzled large amounts
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What did the 5-Anti-Movement target?
Bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, fraud and economic espionage
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What did the Anti-Movement's encourage?
Denunciation of friends and family and anti-bourgeoise thought and discrimination
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What was the Hundred Flowers campaign?
In 1956, Mao called for an open debate about the laws of the CCP and the nature of the political system
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Why did Mao call for the Hundred Flowers campaign?
He was scared that the PRC would remember him as a Stalin-like figure and influenced by Krushchev's de-stalinisation scheme
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What was the reaction of the Party to the Hundred Flowers Campaign?
The officials were at first hesitant because they knew that it would undermine the party and increase personal thinking. Also with Mao's vendetta against rightists, they knew it might end badly
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What happened after the Hundred Flowers campaign was launched?
In 1957, a wave of criticisms about the party bombarded Mao. Beijing University set up a Democratic Wall where they put up posters criticising the party
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What was Mao's reaction to the Hundred Flowers Campaign?
His attention turned to stamping out 'poisonous weeds', in July 1957 Mao ordered a halt to the campaign and over 550,000 'rightists' were humiliated, imprisoned, sent to labour camps or killed.
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What was the impact of the Hundred Flowers Campaign?
It discouraged dissent and intellectuals never criticised (or advised) the party again. There was a national distrust for Mao, and his position was now unchallengeable
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What was the Agarian Reform Law of 1950?
Redistributed land to the peasants and represented the landlord class as bourgeoise. Landlords exploited the peasants and were hated under Communist ideology
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What happened to landlords under the Land Reforms in 1950?
They were taken to struggle sessions, shouted and spat at. They were paraded through villages and humiliated. 10 million landlords had their land taken away from them
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Why did Mao move towards collectivisation?
The land reform was creating a peasantry ruling class, which was against communist ideology
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What were Mutual Aid Teams? (1951)
Groups of 10 families that pooled together their labour, animals and equipment with private ownership. It became apparent that peasants that didn't join faced a lack of resources
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What were Agricultural Producer's Co-operative? (1953)
MAT's were collaborated together and fields could be cultivated more efficiently. Richer and larger households could offer parts of their land to the APC's. Profits were distributed due to contribution and produc
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Why did Mao push towards collectivisation?
Only 14% of rural households belonged to APC's and private farming was still going on
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How did Mao initiate the drive to collectivisation?
In 1954, Mao halted APC's for 18 months but 6 months afterwards called for full scale collectivisation at the Conference of Local Party Secretaries
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What was the impact of Mao's call for collectivisation
The figures rose from 17 million families in APC's in 1955 to 75 million in 1956. HPC's were introduced consisting of 200-300 families
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Why did peasants join collectives?
Most peasants would be subject to ridicule and violence if they didn't join and banks wouldn't lend money to those outside of a collective. Additionally, resources were better in communes.
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Why was communes launched?
To enable the pooling of even more resources, cadres in henan actually said local APC's were eager to form into communes
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How were communes organised?
Mao referred to the GLF as "walking on two legs" as they increased agriculture and industry at the same time. There were communal canteens, dormitories and farmlands for cultivation. It was the job of the peasantry to feed the urban workers.
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What was the first commune?
Sputnik in the Henan province was the first commune create, consisting of 9000 households
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What were the conditions like in communes?
Couples could only sleep together on conjugal visits. Management teams split communes into work brigades. Communal units provided social care. Nurseries looked after children and broke up the family unit
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How and why was private farming abolished?
All private property was surrendered to the commune, there was no need for personal possessions. A reduction in motivation followed this because of the loss of rewards for work and military discipline increased a loss of identification
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What is Lysenkoism?
Trofim Lysenko was a ukranian agricultural scientist. Mao made his ideas a policy in 1958.
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What were the positive impacts of Lysenkoism?
Development of farm tools, field management, increased irragation, use of new breeds/seeds
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What were the negative impacts of Lysenkoism?
Close planting, increased fertilisation and pest control were all implemented at the same time so the effects were damaging. It lead to the mass killing of sparrows which in turn increased the insect population who ate all the crops.
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What happened at the Lushan conference in 1958?
Mao declared the system of communes to be a success and said the harvest resulted in 430 million when the real figure was 200 million. Peng Dehaui denounced Mao for his claims and he was sacked from the party
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Who replaced Mao as head of state in 1958?
Liu Shaoqi
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How bad was the famine?
The human cost varied from 30 million to 50 million, it affected all central areas of China. 25% of Tibet was wiped out (partly due to the fact they couldn't produce barley under cultural discrimination)
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What were conditions like during the Great Famine?
Many people turned to cannibalism, prostitution, selling their wives/children, eating bark and starving.
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How did backyard furnances cause the Great Famine?
The CCP encouraged peasants to throw away all their metal, and during the frenzy to produce the eventually weak steel all crops were neglected and little food was produced
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How did Lysenkoism cause the Great Famine?
The results were disastrous, crops were eaten by insects, due to close planting soil couldn't cope with the amount of plants, and increased fertilisation lead to inefficient soil
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How did the conspiracy of silence result in the Great Famine?
Officials were too scared to admit that the famine was happening to Mao, so no help was given or a relaxation in food requisitioning. Party cadres lied about production figures so more grain was requistioned than could be made.
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Why was the First Five Plan not immediately introduced?
The first 5YP lasted four years, from 1952-56, the economy needed to be tackled first however. Communists had to stamp out nationalism. The CCP had to reward peasants for the help in the revolution by giving them land and food first. The Korean war.
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Why did the Chinese use the soviet model for the Five Year plans?
The Soviet model was the only other communist state that they could copy. It also seemed successful in defeating Nazi invasion.
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What was the nature of Soviet help during the 1st 5YP?
Over 100,000 Soviet advisers brought their 'knowledge' in industrial and agricultural sectors. China had to pay them for their advise and also teach Russian in Chinese schools. A well known phrase was: "Soviet's today is our tomorrow"
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What were the targets of the 1st 5YP?
The overall aim was to make the PRC self-sufficient. Targets were set by economic planners and heavy industry was prioritised over consumer goods. Food was forced to be bought at a lower price so that wages were kept low. Private ownership was aboli
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What were the economical reasons for launching the Great Leap Forward?
Agricultural output was increasing under collectivisation and Mao recognised a paired advancement in industry.
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What were the personal reasons for launching the Great Leap Forward?
Mao had boosted confidence from the rapid success of communes, so he wanted to seem impressive once more. During Mao's tour around China, party cadres eagerly showed their peasant's success to Mao-which added more to his ego
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What were the political reasons for launching the Great Leap Forward?
Mao wanted to show that China's framework for communism was better than the Soviet Union's, and because agriculture and industry advanced at the same time it added to his role as a powerful communist leader
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How did decentralisation make up one of the aims of the GLF?
The plan gave more power to local cadres, this would decrease the impact of bureaucrats and Mao genuinely thought the peasantry would be happy to work for him
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How did backyard furnaces make up one of the aims of the GLF?
Steel targets were raised to 6-8 million tonnes, Mao urged everyone to mass participate in making their own steel in furnaces (Mao was assured this would work because of the water conservancy scheme).
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What happened when Mao launched the backyard furnace scheme?
With 49% of all steel coming from backyard furnaces, it became a national movement. People began to neglect tending to crops and metal became very scarce. In 1959 it was realised that the steel was worthless but for pride Mao didn't drop the scheme.
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What were the effects of the backyard furnace scheme?
Steel was worthless, crops were neglected, food production decreased, woodlands disappeared because they were used for fuel, this led to faster soil erosion
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How did state-owned enterprises make up one of the aims of the GLF?
All private ownership was abolished and targets, outputs and wages were determined by the state. Workers had job security and social benefits but incentive therefore production was lowered.
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How did the water conservancy scheme show Mao's ideas?
in 1957, millions of peasants were sent out in brigades to construct dams and reservoirs. Mao insisted that mass numbers were better than machinery to do this. So, peasants were sent out with shovels and baskets
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How was The Three Gate Gorge Dam a failure?
Mao set this up to be an irrigation scheme, however peasants were not trained and there was no planning (apart from Soviet 'advice'). It led to twice as much mud building up in the Yellow River. Destruction in other schemes led to salinisation
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What happened at the Lushan Conference 1959?
Mao had called the conference to assess the progress of the GLF, Peng Dehaui challenged him by recognising the famine and no other leaders backed him. He was expelled from the party.
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What happened after the Lushan Conference?
Mao had considered reigning in the backyard furnaces but after being challenged we accelerated the speed of production. Additionally, the Chinese population realised that no one could challenge Mao anymore. His policy of listening to the people ended
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Who was in charge of and what were the main aims of the 3rd Five Year Plan?
Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were put in charge of reconstructing economy after the GLF, it had many capitalist features. Chen Yun also helped with planning
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What were the features of The Economic Reform?
Communes were broken up, ineffective projects were closed down, intellectual opinions were valued, centralised control, financial incentives for production were placed
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What were the results of the The Economic Reform (1962-65)?
Agricultural and industrial increased in great quantity
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How did Mao react to the Economic Reform?
Mao looked inferior, as he wasn't implicating the successful reforms. He labelled the plan as revisionist and organised a conference of 7000 cadres to criticise it, Liu subtly blamed Mao for past mistakes. Mao retreated from public eye in 1962.
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In 1965, how how the Chinese government split?
Liu, Deng and Yun were pragmatists- they believed concessions on ideology were needed to advance production - even bringing back private ownership. Mao believed mass mobilisation would eradicate the bourgeois class and was an ideologue
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What was Mao's perspective on the 1st Five Year Plan?
His reforms looked successful, had control of workers in danweis, Soviet help showed he still needed aid to improve the country
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What was Mao's perspective on the 2nd Five Year Plan?
He decentralised power so all blame couldn't be put on him, backyard furnaces provided a false sense of success, Sino-Soviet split increased the amount of distrust in Mao, the famine made him like naive to the direction of his policies.
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How did the peasants fair in the 1st Five Year Plan?
They had job security, but grain was requisitioned and they had no private ownership of their land
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How did the peasants fair in the 2nd Five Year Plan?
With backyard furnaces, their revolutionary spirit improved but they neglected crops and had no tools, the disastrous famine, grain continued to be requisitioned, increased power on party cadres
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How did the peasants fair in the 3rd Five Year Plan?
Realistic targets were set, reduction and splitting of communes, private plots reintroduced to increase motivation and because of the centralised power, party cadres has less impact on their lives.
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Who were pragmatists in 1962?
Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun, Bo Yibo
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When did the divide between party pragmatists and ideologues become more apparant?
Mao backed down from public eye in 1962, giving pragmatists more power. Also, Liu Shaoqi controlled and organised work teams to combat problems that the Socialist Education Movement
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What was a pragmatist?
Someone that concessioned ideology for economic advances, and they also tried to further foreign relations
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Why did Mao fear pragmatists and why?
Pragmatists contradicted all communist ideology, Mao believed economical advances came from mass mobilisation and not central planning
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What was the Socialist Education Movement?
It aimed to preach that a collective economic approach was better, and also aimed to root out corruption in rural cadres and central government.
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How was the Cultural Revolution a continuance of the original revolution?
As the younger generation had not yet experienced communist values or class struggle, they needed to be reinforced with the ideas of Mao. By becoming Red Guards- they could commit themselves to the party.
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Why did Mao feel Krushchev and his successors squander Lenin's legacy?
They didn't continue to advocate Lenin's ideals, so the new Russian generation was uneducated to communist values and capitalism was beginning to be seen again in government.
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Why did Mao focus on the youth?
They needed to be educated about Communist ideals, as they were the future generation.
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Why did Mao fear bureaucracy in China?
They thrived on power and elite position meant they had lost touch with the nation (they were forming bourgeois ruling party. And the revolution was meant to be peasant-led.eng
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How was Mao undermined by Liu and Deng?
Before the 7000 cadre conference, Liu Shaoqi was named Mao's successor but Mao soon labelled him a capitalist roader. Liu or Deng, however, couldn't be undermined as they had way too much power in the party
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What was the Wu Han Affair?
Wu Han wrote a play, describing the Peng Dehaui dismissal- which Mao thought was criticising his actions. Wu Han's boss was Peng Zhen, party leader in Beijing, who was friends with Liu Shaoqi. Now Mao could label Liu friends with a revisionist
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What happened after the Wu Han Affair?
In 1966, Mao created the Central Cultural Revolution Group, made up of Mao's supporters. Kang Sheng ordered a wall poster campaign in campuses nationwide to spur on hatred of the government from the students
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How did Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping react to the creation of the Cultural Revolution?
They initially didn't think anything of a remodification of culture. During the wall poster campaigns, they sent work teams to diffuse the uprisings by the students
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What was the slogan for the wall poster campaigns?
"Bombard the Headquarters!"
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How did Mao personally trigger the Cultural Revolution?
In 1966, he swam the Yangzte river which showed he was physically ready to battle and it marked the birthplace of the revolution. Mao visited Beijing to force Liu and Deng to criticise the party and apologise for sending work teams out.
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Who were the Red Guards and when were they most active?
They were Mao's personal army during the Cultural Revolution. They were most active August 1966 to the end of 1967
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Which two publications were created to indoctrinate the youth?
Lin Biao and Chen Boda created the 'Little Red Book', which was sold almost 750 million times as it became mandatory in schools. In 1963, 'The Diary of Lei Feng' was also produced, a story of a devoted lorry driver.
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Why were the youth so excited to carry out the Cultural Revolution?
Such freedom to disrespect elders, government officials, and authority was greatly received. Red Guards could escape their family class label and they could get revenge on Party cadres that had spited them
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When was the first mass rally and what did it imply?
18th August 1966, took place in Tiananmen square. Mao and Lin Biao looked fierce compared to Liu and Deng who were wearing informal clothing. 1,000,000 students showed up to listen to Mao's encouraging words of revolution. It marked the return on Mao
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What did the mass rallies do for Mao?
Entailed the targets for the Cultural Revolution, and officially approved the students to carry out the attacks. At each of the 8 rallies, it gained more support for the communist party
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How did the Communist party allow the Red Guards to carry out attacks easily?
Every Red Guard was given a rail card to travel throughout the PRC and encouraged 'revolutionary tourism'. PLA soliders played a key role in transporting students from provinces to Beijing to outlying regions of China
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What were the four olds?
Old culture, old habits, old ideas and old customs
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Under the attack on the four olds, how were the Red Guards able to attack everything?
The categories were very vague so Red Guards attacked almost everything- even Confucius' birthplace
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How did the Red Guards attack Western influence?
They shaved off Western hairstyles, and targeted old fashion. Street names for streets that had international embassies were changed. (e.g the British Embassy street was changed to anti-imperialist street')
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How was bourgeoise sentiment irradicted during the Cultural Revolution?
Houses were ransacked for paintings, instruments, jewellery, books. Struggle sessions for owners of these artefacts
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How did the cultural revolution undermine the importance of family?
Red Guards denounced members of their own family, and it physically split up families with their children away during 'revolutionary tourism'.
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How did Zhou Enlai show a slight connection to Imperial China?
He halted attacks on the forbidden city and stopped Red Guards from changing the colour of 'go' on the traffic lights to red (as it would lead to car crashes)
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How were the Red Guards able to purge anyone and everyone?
Your past contribution to the party didn't matter, they could validate any killing under the four olds, names of people of the black class was given to Red Guard troops
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What happened in January 1967?
There was a storm of internal fighting between Red Guard units in Shanghai intially, PLA had to intervene and eventually Revolutionary committee to deal with disputes (set up around the PRC quickly)
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How did the effects of the January storm cause factional disputes?
The PLA suggested there should be a clampdown on radical groups (fear of being targeted). The politburo backed this but Mao called for the CCRG to over ride them, Causing divisions regarding decisions on what to do with radical Red Guards
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When did the cultural revolution come to an end?
In August 1967, the PLA was so undermined they couldn't defend the nation anymore so Mao allowed the PLA to clampdown on radical groups
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What called for the Rustication campaign? 1968-1970
The PLA was being undermined, and the Red Guards were destroying industry and agriculture.
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What were the benefits of the Rustication campaign?
The Red Guards could cause less destruction if they were relocated, the younger generation needed to be immersed into the lives of the peasants (leaders of the revolutions), also young bureaucrats were taught about the importance of manual labour
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What were the conditions of the rural areas for the Red Guards?
Conditions were continually poor, peasants hardly had any food for themselves
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Why was Zhou Enlai probably the best successor for Mao?
He had been President since 1949, he had influence in Lin Biao's assasination plot and was a pragmatist.
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How did Lin Biao's assassination plot lead to the demise of Mao and Zhou Enlai's revival?
Mao was seriously effected knowing his closest friend was a traitor, Zhou Enlai was told by Lin Biao's daughter and cut off air travel making him seem trustworthy. After this,
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What were the Four Modernisations?
A scheme set by Zhou Enlai to modernise agriculture, eduaction, industry and defence) He also wanted to make bonds with the West and in 1972 arranged US President Nixon's visit to China
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Why was Deng Xiaoping reinstated to the party, and what happened to him after this?
Zhou Enlai encouraged Mao to give Deng Xiaoping a job, Enlai had thought for economic reform, however Mao used him to train Wang Hongwen (his next successor). He was General Secretary of the party in 1973
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What year did Zhou Enlai die and how was he remembered?
April 1976, there was a mass memorial service which turned into protest for his modernisations and against the Gang of Four. It showed that centred control was no longer working.
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When did Mao Zedong die? And what was the cause of this?
September 1976, his health had been bad ever since Lin Biao's assassination plot, rumours were he had Parkinson's disease. As a result, he couldn't make key decisions in the Communist party.
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Who was chosen to be Mao's successor and why?
Hua Guofeng, Mao thought that Wang Hongwen would have too much influence from Jiang Qing, Lin Biao & Zhou Enlai had both died. Deng Xiaoping had been purged into exile after the Tiananmen Incident (Zhou Enlai's memorial service)
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Why were the Gang of Four arrested after Mao's death?
They had undermined Hua Guofeng to try and gain power, with the help of the PLA Hua arrested them for trial for all their murders during the Cultural Revolution
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What reforms did Hua Guofeng place?
He revived economic reform influenced by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
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Who took over in 1980 as leader of China?
Deng Xiaoping was coaxed out of exile by delegates of the CCP, he was the new leader of the PRC by 1980
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Card 2

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Between 1927-1937, Chiang-Kai-shek established political stability and tried to destroy the Communist party. He centered them to Jiangxing, where he denied resources to kill them off.

Back

What happened during the Nanking decade?

Card 3

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In 1934, 100000 communists embarked on a march to Yanan to escape persecution- only 20000 survived. Here they could gain strength and adpat their ideology

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The communists and the nationalists formed a united front to combat Japanese invasion. After Pearl Harbour, the Americans aided the Chinese army- whilst Chiang asked for the US Army to help destroy the communists.

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Card 5

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Japanese troops retreated after atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima, American troops also retreated as they were only fighting the Japanese and encouraged the GMD and the CCP to form a coalition goverment. They refused and civil war broke out

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