Health and Social Care HSC07

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What is meant by aerobic fitness?
The ability for the body to take in oxygen and transport it around the body, to the tissues and cells. Once the cells have obtained the oxygen its how efficient the cells are at using that oxygen in respiration, to provide energy.
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Continued aerobic fitness
The more oxygen a body can take in the more energy can be provided and therefore the more endurance a person will have, this means theyll be able to work longer than 12 minutes at a time.
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Explain what VO2 max measures and include the units of measurement
Vo2 max measures a persons aerobic fitness. It indicates the maximum capacity a body has of taking in oxygen and taking in the cells for respiration. It is measured in ml/kg/min. The higher the VO2 max the longer you can work because you respire more
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VO2 Max continuation
and produce more energy for work. The lower the VO2 max the less respiration there'll be leading to less energy eg- asthmatics or obesity
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Long Term physiological effects due to training
By training regularly the surface area of the lung can be increased meaning more oxygen can be taken in. The number of capillaries in the lungs and the muscles will increase meaning more oxygen can be carried to the easier quicker.
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Long term effects continued
The more oxygen there is themore respiration there will be so the energy levels will rise. If a muscle has a lot of energy it can contract more strongly meaning bigger volume of blood can be sent back to the heart. The increase in blood volume will
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Short term effects of exercising
The heartrate increases due to the need to supply oxygen to the working muscles, a person will sweat a lot because there is more respiration taking place and this generates heat (exothermic reaction) this can be seen by a person going red due to the
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Short term effects continued
blood vessels near the skin dilating (opening up) so that the heat of the body can be lost through radiation. Overall the heartrate is increased, the stroke volume is increased and therefore the cardiac output this means oxygen can be delivered to
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Short term effects continued
muscle tissue for cellular respiration to provide energy
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To control weight by regular exercise
By exercising regularly it will supress a persons appetite as it helps the appestat in the brain. This means there is less chance of overating. By not overating there will be less storage of fat so a reduced weight gain. The regular exericse will
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Control exercise continued
help a person to use up energy and cause a negative balance of the input output equation (basically using up more calories than taking them in) this will lead to a person losing weight. The more exercise a person does increases their metabolic rate
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Control exercise continued
which means they burn up their fat for energy
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Explain the roles of the different food groups associated with powering exercise
The foods are associated with exercise are carbs and fats, carbs can be found in dairy produce, nuts and oils. Carbs are stored as glycogen in the muscles where it can be changed into glucose and used in respiration to provide energy for the muscles
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Food groups continued
during exercise. Fats are stored as triglycerides and changed into fatty acids when needed to supply energy through respiration carbs supply energy for exercise that take place over short periods of time. As it can be broken down faster than fats.
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Food groups continued
Exercise that takes place over long periods of time uses both carbs and fats
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Protein Question
Protein is the main component of muscles therefore as protein is being eaten it helps to build up the muscles. The bigger the muscles the stronger it can contract this can increase movement during exercise. Protein will also helptorepair muscledamage
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The possible effect of calcium deficiency on the body
A deficiency of calcium causes rickets this leads to weakened bones especially of the legs which bend outward as the leg bones are too weak to take the weight of the torso. Generally the bones have a low density because they are not solid but have
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Calcium deficiency continued
Many cavaties inside. This leads to osteoporosis especially in women which may lead to bones breaking easily, there may be more muscle contractions and poor nerve function which will be indicated by numbness or tingling
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Deficiency of iron on body
The red blood cells will have little or no haemaglobin meaning they will be able to carry enough oxygen to the cells for respiration this will lead to the cells producing less energy and so the person will become easily fatigued. The heart will beat
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Minerals associated with energy across the body
Iron is needed to make haemoglobin use protein that helps red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. Iron can be found in green leafy veg eg, cabbage and kale etc. Phosphorus aids a number of processes associated with energy metabolism. Its found
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Minerals continuation
in red meat, fish, dairy and rice. Iodine is involved in metabolic rate due to it being essential component of the thyroid hormones found in seaweed shellfish etc. Zinc is involved in the major metabolic pathway for energy metabolism eg meat fish egg
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Vitamins involved in energy
Vitamins B12 and B9 are needed to make healthy blood cells so they can carry oxygen. B12 is needed for energy production, vitamin B1 thiamin is a co-enzyme for several energy yielding metabolic pathways. It is needed to release energy from carbs.
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Vitamins continuation
B2 riboflavin is needed to release energy from protein, carb and fats. It is needed for the transport and metabolism of iron in the bidy which helps the transport of oxygen helping energy release respiration. B3 niacin is needed to release energyfood
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Deficiency of B vitamins
Deficiency of B1 leads to BeriBeri a nervous system disease. Deficiency of B2 causes cracked skin around the nises mouth and magenta tongue. Deficiency of B3 causes pellegra which the skin becomes sensitive to sunburn. Deficiency of B9 cause insomnia
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Deficiency of B vits continued
And depression and irritabiliy. Deficiency in B12 results in pernicious anaemia where the red blood cells are enlarged and peripheral and neurological damage develops
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Describe two named aspects of muscular fitness
Dynamic strength - the ability of the muscular system to overcome resistance by exerting a force through high speed muscle contractions eg sprinting. Maximum strength is the maximum force exerted in one contraction
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Name 3 types of muscular fitness and explain how regular exercise might benefit each one
Regular exercise improves dynamic strength because the skeletal muscles develop enabling them to exert a force at speed eg sprinting also improve because the strength of their contraction will increase so heavier weight can be lifted.
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Muscular fitness continuation
Muscular endurance will improve because regular exercise improves a persons ability to exert power for longer periods without fatigue
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What is stress
The feeling of being under too much emotional or mental pressure, making a person feel like they can no longer cope. Signs are sleeping problems, palpitations, feeling anxious, lack of appetite, sweating etc.
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Explain the benefit of exercise on stress
Regular exercise can control stress by helping physically and mentally. Exercise helps to improve sleeping patterns and therefore improves a persons concentration and decision making. Blood pressure reduces which helps reduce palpitation,
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Describe how regular exercise can affect self esteem
Regular exercise stimulates the release of chemical endorphins from the brain. These give a person a feel good feeling leading to a positive mental attitude this will increase their self confidence and they will be abke to achieve their targets
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Explain the benefit of regular exercise on ageing
Regular exercise reduces the physical loss of ability of a person eg flexibility, stamina etc. By maintaining regular exercise a persons lung function will remain good meaning that levels of oxygen will stay high and the exercise will enable the
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Exercise on ageing continued
heart to pump the oxygenated blood to the muscles. This means their joints will keep their flexibilty and muscle strength and stamina will be maintained. Exercising keeps the bones strong so osteoporosis is reduced. In general sleepingpatternsimprove
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Explain how regular exercise affects the energy equation in relation to weight control
The energy equation describes to food taken insupplies the energy to for the body. Its mainly in the form of carbs or fats which are converted into glucose. Joules or calories are the measurements for energy produced by the cells for respiration to
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Energy equation continuation
allow movement. In order to maintain weight the inout must balance the output meaning the energy taken in through food must be equal the energy used. However its easier to control weight by increasing the metabolic rate and exercising
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What are the social benefits and emotional benefits of exercise
Maintains exsiting friends, develop social and communication skills, meet new people and widen their social circle and make new friends
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Explain how heart disease can be prevented by regular exercise
Exercise increases the cardiac output which increases arterial elasticity. Fats can build up inside the arteries and if these break away they may cause a stroke. Therefore a change in their diet may be beneficial as its possible to increasethe amount
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Heart disease prevention continuation
Of low density cholestrol levels are lowered. As the heart becomes more efficient at pumping blood, hypertension is reduced
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Explain how exercise can regulate type 1 diabetes
Exercise uses up the sugar during respiration. The more exercise that is done the more respiration is needed to provide energy for the muscles therefore exercise lowers the blood sugar levels. The body therefore doesnt need to convert the sugar to
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Type 1 diabetes regulation
Glycogen so there is less stress on the body and is reduced depending for insulin. This will lead to less glucose being excreted in the urine, however care must be taken on the amount of exercise is too much so can lead to hypoglycaemia and coma
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A person has osteoporosis and hypertension she is at high risk of stroke, describe a suitable exercise programme
A person should check with medical advice to see if exercise would cause further harm. A person should begin with a low intensity exercise programme eg swimming. The exercise should slowly increase in intensity so that a person improves their fitness
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A person is recovering from a serious illness, describe a suitable programme for exercise
The person first needs to seek medical advice in case there are any underlying conditions that could cause further damage. The person first needs a low intensity programme eg walking. Throughout there has to be monitoring on progress avoid overextens
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What does FITTA stand for
Frequency of exercise sessions per week Intensity raise the heart rate to 80% Time of the activity Type of exercise Adherence the programme should be adapted to meet a persons needs
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What is VLCD
Very Low Calorie Diet - less than a thousand calories a day and to be taken under supervision eg - a bowl of corflakes. Macro or micro nutrients plenty of proteins chicken without the skin, no fatty foods
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Barriers to effective exercise
Cost, skills and fitness levels, faculty location, work and family commitments, motivation, peer pressure, transport
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How to overcome barriers
Work commitments - cycle/walk/use stairs. Family commitments - housework eg hoovering around the house, cleaning windows. Cost - exercise at home/walk or jog local area, keep transport costs low
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Safety in a physical activity
Have medical checks to see if exercise will cause further injury, use correct clothing and equipment, follow warm up and warm down programmes, drink plenty of water
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Explain how a warm up will help prepare the body to exercise
Warm up exercises get the body ready for exercise and prevents any injury or muscle soreness. They gently raise the pulse rate and cardiac output and increase a persons oxygen uptakeand its delivery to muscles. Cellular respiration increases
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Warm up continued
Generating energy and heat the heat is used to warm the muscles making them more flexible. The person becomes motivated for exercise
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Continued aerobic fitness


The more oxygen a body can take in the more energy can be provided and therefore the more endurance a person will have, this means theyll be able to work longer than 12 minutes at a time.

Card 3


Explain what VO2 max measures and include the units of measurement


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


VO2 Max continuation


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Long Term physiological effects due to training


Preview of the front of card 5
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