Biology - Topic 1

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What does CVD stand for?
Cardiovascular disease
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What are forms of CVD?
Coronary heart disease, stroke, angina, myocardial infarction
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What is diffusion?
The movement of molecules or ions from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration by slow random movement.
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What is mass flow?
The movement of liquids down a pressure or temperature gradient
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What is the purpose of the circulatory system?
To move substances around the body.
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Why don't unicellular creatures need a circulatory system and what do they use instead?
The diffusion distance is much shorter for them, so they just move substances by diffusion alone.
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Why do we use a heart?
To pump the vital substances around our bodies.
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What is an open circulatory system?
Blood circulating in a large open space and a simple heart pumps it into the cavities.
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What is a closed circulatory system?
Blood circulates within tubes caused vessels, and is pumped into narrow channels.
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What are the benefits of an open circulatory system?
Much less vulnerable to pressure, easier to control body temperature
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What are the benefits of a closed circulatory system?
More efficient at delivering substances around the body, travels faster
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What is a single circulatory system and what uses them?
When blood travels to the heart only once in a cycle E.g Fish
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What is a double circulatory system and what uses them?
When blood travels to the heart twice in a cycle E.g Mammals
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What are the benefits of a double circulatory system?
Creates more pressure to pump blood around, delivers more blood to tissues
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What type of molecule is water?
A polar molecule
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Why is water an ideal solvent?
Polar/Ionic molecules dissolve easily due to waters dipole nature, they are said to be hydrophilic, meaning organisms can get the molecules they need a non-polar hydrophobic substances like lipids don't dissolve in it
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Why has water have ideal thermal properties?
Water has a high specific heat capacity meaning organisms can maintain body temperature easily and aquatic organisms can live in water
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What is the superior vena cava/what does it do?
A large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the head and arms to the heart
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What are the pulmonary veins/what do they do?
Veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs into the atriums
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What is the right atrium/what does it do?
A chamber that holds deoxygenated blood from the vena cava and into the right ventricle
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What is the right atrioventricular valve/what does it do?
The tricuspid valve that prevents the back flow of blood from the right ventricle
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What is the right ventricle/what does it do?
A chamber that holds blood from the right atrium and into the pulmonary artery
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What is the aorta/what does it do?
A blood vessel that carries blood to the body
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What is the pulmonary artery/what does it do?
Arteries that carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
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What is the left atrium/what does it do?
A chamber that holds blood from the pulmonary veins and into the left ventricle
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What is the left atrioventricular valve/what does it do?
The bicuspid valve that prevents the back flow of blood into the atrium from the ventricle
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What are the semilunar valves/what do they do?
Valves that prevent the back flow of blood from the pulmonary artery and aorta
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What is the left ventricle/what does it do?
A chamber that holds blood from the left atrium into the aorta
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What are the coronary arteries/what do they do?
Vessels that supply the heart with blood to keep beating
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What are the features of an artery?
Outer coat of collagen fibres, thick muscle and elastic tissue, narrow lumen, endothelium
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What are the features of a vein?
Outer coat of collagen fibres, thin muscle and elastic tissue, wide lumen, endothelium, valves
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What are the features of a capillary?
1 cell thick endothelium, lumen
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How does having a narrow lumen benefit an artery?
A narrow lumen increases the pressure in the vessel
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How does having elastic fibres benefit an artery?
Allows to elastic recoil mechanism to work during systole and diastole
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How does having valves benefit a vein?
Valves prevent back flow in the vessel
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How does veins being located between the skeletal muscles benefit them?
When they contract they help push the blood along which has very low pressure
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What is atrial systole?
When the atrium contract and push the blood into the ventricles
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What is ventricular systole?
When the ventricles contract and push the blood into the aorta and
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What is diastole?
When both the atrium and ventricles relax
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What is atherosclerosis?
When fatty deposits block an artery or increase its chance of being blocked by a blood clot
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What happens in atherosclerosis?
The endothelium is damaged, white blood cells move into the artery wall, chemicals accumulate such as cholesterol, a fatty deposit builds up called an atheroma, calcium and fibrous tissue build up, hardens into a plaque, wall loses elasticity
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Why is atherosclerosis positive feedback?
A rise in blood pressure leads to atherosclerosis which increases your blood pressure
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Why do only arteries get atherosclerosis?
The low pressure in other vessel means there is less chance of damage to the walls
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What is blood clotting?
When a blood vessel is damaged blood accumulates to prevent loss of blood
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What happens in blood clotting?
Platelets stick to the wall, thromboplastin is released from tissue and platelets, Ca and K in plasma accumulates, triggers cascade, prothrombin turns into enzyme called thrombin, thrombin catalyses soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
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What is coronary heart disease?
When plaque builds up in the arteries but theres a lack of oxygen
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What does ischaemic mean?
A restriction of blood supply that causes a shortage of oxygen and glucose
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What is myocardial infarction?
A heart attack
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What causes a stroke?
When the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted
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What causes angina?
A partially blocked artery
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What causes aneurysms?
A bulge in a blood vessel due to it weakening from part of the vessel being narrowed
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What is a risk?
The probability of occurrence of some unwanted event or outcome
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What are some factors that contribute to health risks?
Age, heredity, physical environment, social environment, lifestyle and behaviour choices
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What is a correlation?
A mutual relationship or connection between two or more things.
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What is a causation?
When something influences something, causes something to happen
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What is a cohort study?
These follow a large group of people over time to see who develops a disease and who doesn't
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What is a case control study?
These follow a group of people with the disease and compares them to a group of individuals without the disease
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What are the pros of a cohort study?
Provide best info on causation of disease, examine range of outcomes caused by one exposure
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What are the cons of a cohort study?
Require long time after exposure, does not work well for rare diseases
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What are the pros of a case control study?
Simple to conduct/cheaper & time efficient, suitable for disease with a long latent period
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What are the cons on a case control study?
Less adapt to showing causal relationships, prone to bias, does not work well for rare causes
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Summarise a cohort study for CVD
Framingham Heart study wanted to identify factors that contribute to the development of the disease, random sample taken, none has the disease, high blood pressure and cholesterol, smoking, and obesity were all identified as major CVD factors
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Summarise a case control study for CVD
INTERHEART screened patients with a heart attack at a hospitals and found that 9 risk factors accounted for 90% of the risk and its the same for everybody despite gender and race
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What are the risk factors for CVD?
High blood pressure, obesity, blood cholesterol and other dietary factors, smoking, inactivity and genetic inheritance
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How does having a high blood pressure increase the risk of CVD?
A high blood pressure weakens the arteries meaning a blood clot is more likely to occur, and CVD to then be formed
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How does obesity increase the risk of CVD?
Obesity causes more chances of fatty deposits building up in the arteries, therefore increasing the chance of a clot and then developing CVD
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How does smoking increase the risk of CVD?
Smoking damages the lining of your artery walls leading to a build up of an atheroma and then CVD
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What is elevated blood pressure also known as?
Hypertension
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Ẃhat is blood pressure a measure of?
The hydrostatic force of blood against the walls of a blood vessel.
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When is the pressure highest and lowest?
During systole and diastole
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What is the unit of measurement for blood pressure?
mmHg
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What device is used to measure blood pressure?
A sphygmomanometer
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List the blood vessels in order of highest to lowest pressure
Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
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What is peripheral resistance?
Vascular resistance to the flow of blood in peripheral arterial vessels
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What is oedema?
Fluid buildup in tissues that causes swelling
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How does an oedema a sign of high blood pressure?
If blood pressure is high more fluid may be forced out of the capillaries
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How does a diuretic help reduce the risk of CVD?
Increases the volume of urine and lowers blood volume and pressure
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What are the risks of using diuretic?
Very occasional dizziness, nausea, muscle cramps
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What factors would make you liable to be prescribed diuretics?
Having a high blood pressure therefore age and lack of physical exercise
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How does beta blockers help reduce the risk of CVD?
Block respond elf the heart to hormones and makes contractions less frequent and less powerful
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What are the risks of using beta blockers?
Possible link with diabetes
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What factors would make you liable to be prescribed beta blockers?
Obesity
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How do ACE inhibitors reduce the risk of CVD?
Blocks the production of angiotensin which normally causes arterial constriction and rise in blood pressure
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What are the risks of using ACE inhibitors?
Cough, dizziness, heart arrhythmia, impaired kidney function
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How do statins reduce the risk of CVD?
Lower cholesterol level in blood by blocking the liver enzyme that makes cholesterol
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What are the risks of using statins?
Muscle aches, nausea, constipation and diarrhoea, liver failure
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How do anticoagulants reduce the risk of CVD?
Reduce the risk of clot formation
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What are the risks of using anticoagulants?
Risk of uncontrolled bleeding
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How do platelet inhibitory drugs reduce the risk of CVD?
Make platelets less sticky
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What are the risks of using platelet inhibitory drugs?
Aspiring irritates the stomach lining and can causes bleeding, using clopidogrel with aspirin can increase the risk
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What do you need in a balanced diet?
Lipids, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, fibre and water
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Why are carbohydrates the main source of energy?
They're easily digested and processed despite it giving the least energy content
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What are monosaccharides?
Simple sugars, the monomers of carbohydrates
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What are the three monosaccharides?
Glucose, fructose, and galatase
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What is a disaccharide?
2 monosaccharides together formed in a condensation reaction
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What does a glucose + glucose create?
A maltose
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What does a glucose + fructose create?
A sucrose
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What does a glucose + galactose?
Lactose
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What is a polysaccharide?
many monosaccharides
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What are 4 examples of polysaccharides?
Starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin
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What are the properties of polysaccharides that make them good storage molecules?
Insoluble, easily hydrolysed, large but compact
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What is starch made of?
Alpha glucose and amylose + amylopectin
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What is glycogen made of?
Alpha glucose only
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What are the properties of amylase?
Straight, only 1-4 glycosidic bonds, as it gets longer is spirals and makes in compact
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What are the properties of amylopectin?
Branched, has 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds, easily hydrolysed because terminal ends easily broken down
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Where are the OH on alpha glucose and in what direction?
Carbon 1, 2 and 4 facing down
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Where are the OH on galactose and in what direction
Carbon 1, 3 and 4 facing up
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What is glycogen used for?
Used by bacteria, fungi and animals as an energy store
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What is cellulose used for?
Its a dietary fibre and helps the movement of water through the digestive tract
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Why do we need lipids?
Provide energy, help in formation of cell membranes, solubility, protection from damage from friction, hormones
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What do you call a fatty acid?
Glyceride
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Which is healthier saturated or unsaturated fats?
Unsaturated
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How do you work out BMI?
Body mass / heightˆ2
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What are low density lipoproteins?
Triglycerides that combine with cholesterol and protein, they circulate in the bloodstream and help in the maintenance of cell membranes, raise blood pressure
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What are high density lipoproteins?
Transport cholesterol from the body tissues to the liver, lowers blood pressure
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Why is carbon monoxide bad for us?
Binds to haemoglobin and reduces supply of oxygen to cells
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Why is nicotine bad for us?
Stimulates adrenaline production and increases heart rate
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What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants provide an electron to free radicals
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What are free radicals?
Unstable substances with an unpaired electron
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are forms of CVD?

Back

Coronary heart disease, stroke, angina, myocardial infarction

Card 3

Front

What is diffusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is mass flow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the purpose of the circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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