Enzymes Biology Edexcel SNAB A Level

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  • ENZYMES
    • Topic 2
      • Amino Acid consists of carboxylic group and an amine NH2 group
        • Primary Structre: Sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
        • Secondary Structure: Carboxylic Acid has negative charge amine has positive charge, these charges form hydrogen bonds. Alpha helix forms.
        • Tertiary Structure: Further folding of protein into 3D shape held together by bonds e.g ionic or hydrogen bonds.
        • Quaternery Stucture: Two or more polypeptide chains held together by hydrogen bonds
      • Can be used as biological catalysts to speed the rate of reaction by providing an alternative pathway for the reaction or by lowering activation enthalpy
        • Lock and key Hypothesis: Enzyme contains active site where only specific substrates can bind onto and break to form products.
        • Enzymes lower the activation energy by assisting in the breaking and the making of bonds in the active site
    • Topic 6
      • Restriction Enzymes are  used in        electrophore-sis  in order to cut DNA into fragments to be loaded onto agarose gel in a tank with a micropipette
      • Phagocytosis process where white blood cell engulfs foreign matter such as bacteria and secrete enzymes to break down and kill bacteria.
      • Lysozyme is an enzyme that kills bacteria by breaking down cell walls. Foind in saliva and nasal secretion.
    • Topic 3
      • Sperm contain acrosome which swells up and burst to release digestive enzymes to break down Zona pellucida to penetrate through egg cell during acrosome reaction in fertilisation
    • Topic 7
      • Lactate Build up: Amino acids that make enzymes have positive or negative charged active site. When H+ accumulates in cytoplasm it neutralises charge on active site of enzyme so substrate can't bind on to it.
        • Thermoregulation
        • Krebs Cycle: Coenzyme A binds with 2C compound to form Acetyl Conenzyme A which is the first step in the formation of ATP in the Krebs cycle.
    • Topic 5
      • In light dependent reactions of plants within the thylakoid space an enzyme catalyses the splitting of water (photolysis) to give oxygen gas, hydorgen ions and electrons.
        • Co-enzyme NADP combines with electrons and hydrogen to form reduced NADP

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