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Cellular Control revision lesson 1
Section 1 ­ 7 in textbook
Key topics:
- DNA Transcription Translation
- Mutations
- The Lac operon
- Genes and body plans (Hox genes)
- Apoptosis…read more

Slide 2

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Structure of DNA ­ pg 104
Adenine = Thymine (2 Hydrogen
Cytosine = Guanine (3 Hydrogen
Deoxyribose sugar and phosphate
Pyrimadines: Single ring. C and T
Purines: Double ring. A and G…read more

Slide 3

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The genetic code
· A group of 3 bases codes for one amino acid. This is a base
· Only one strand of DNA codes for proteins = reference
· Gene ­ a length of DNA that codes of one polypeptide.
Codes for...
A A T Leucine…read more

Slide 4

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Protein Synthesis ­ Transcription ­pg 105
1. Hydrogen bonds between bases broken by DNA Helicase ­ DNA
2. Free nucleotides diffuse into position with exposed bases on
reference strand, using complemetary base pairing.
3. Condensation reactions catalysed by RNA polymerase creates
4. mRNA molecule breaks free from DNA and leaves the nucleus
through a nuclear pore. Arrives in the cytoplasm and moves to a
ribosome.…read more

Slide 5

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Protein Synthesis ­ Translation ­ pg 106
· tRNA molecules are used ­ have a series of 3 bases called
an anti-codon
· In the cytoplasm, tRNA transferases load AAs onto specific
tRNA molecules, depending on their anti-codon.
1. In the ribosome, there is complementary base pairing
between codons and anti-codons.
2. Another tRNA molecule approaches and joins.
3. A condensation reaction forms a peptide bond between
the 2 AAs.
4. The mRNA moves, and the first tRNA leaves
5. Another amino acid is brought in.
6. A chain of AA's continues to be built up until a stop codon
is reached on the mRNA.…read more

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Chain of
Petide bond
Amino acids
Codon/ Ribosome
base triplet…read more

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