Biology: Topic 5

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  • Topic 5: On The Wild Side
    • Photosynthesis
      • Light Dependent Reaction
        • Chloroplast
          • Granum
            • Stacked Thylakoid Membranes
              • Large Surface Area
              • Photosystems
              • Electron Carrier Molecules
                • Electron Transport Chain
          • Pigment
            • Chlorophyll
              • Absorbs Light Energy
                • Electrons Excited
                  • Electron Carrier Molecules
                    • Electron Transport Chain
                • Photolysis
                  • Splitting of a water molecule using light energy
              • Photosystem 1 Photosystem 2
          • Stroma
            • Contains all the enzymes needed for photolysis
        • Products
          • ATP
            • Adenosine Triphosphate
            • Photophosphorylation
              • ADP + Pi -> ATP
          • NADPH
      • Light Independent Reaction
        • Calvin Cycle
          • 5 Carbon Compound (Ribulose Bisphospate)
            • 6 Carbon Compound - very unstable
              • 2 x 3 Carbon Compound (Glycerate 3-Phosphate) GP
                • 2 x 3 Carbon Compound (Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate) GALP
                  • 5 Carbon Compound (Ribulose Bisphospate)
                    • 6 Carbon Compound - very unstable
                      • 2 x 3 Carbon Compound (Glycerate 3-Phosphate) GP
                        • 2 x 3 Carbon Compound (Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate) GALP
                          • 2/12 GALPs form a Hexose Sugars - e.g. Glucose
                            • What is the glucose used for?
                              • Respiration
                                • Energy
                              • Cellulose
                                • Cell wall
                                • Beta glucose
                                  • Alternately flipped
                                • 1,4 Glycosdic bonds
                                  • Condensation reactions
                                • Microfibrils
                              • + phosphates and nitrates from the soil    -> nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
                              • + nitrates and sulphur from the soil -> amino acids
                                • Proteins
                                  • Enzymes
                                    • Activation energy / enthalpy
                                    • globular proteins
                                    • Specific active site
                                      • Induced fit model
                                      • Lock and key model
                                  • membrane proteins
                                  • primary structure
                                    • Sequence of amino acids
                                  • Secondary Structure
                                    • Alpha helices
                                    • Beta pleated sheets
                                    • Folding
                                  • Tertiary structure
                                    • Further folding
                          • The GP is reduced - this reaction uses the NADPH from the light dependent reaction
                          • This reaction uses the ATP from the light dependent reaction
                      • Enzyme (RuBISCO) and Carbon Dioxide
                    • 10/12 GALPs are used to regenerate Ribulose Bisphosphate
                  • 2/12 GALPs form a Hexose Sugars - e.g. Glucose
                    • What is the glucose used for?
                      • Respiration
                        • Energy
                      • Cellulose
                        • Cell wall
                        • Beta glucose
                          • Alternately flipped
                        • 1,4 Glycosdic bonds
                          • Condensation reactions
                        • Microfibrils
                      • + phosphates and nitrates from the soil    -> nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
                      • + nitrates and sulphur from the soil -> amino acids
                        • Proteins
                          • Enzymes
                            • Activation energy / enthalpy
                            • globular proteins
                            • Specific active site
                              • Induced fit model
                              • Lock and key model
                          • membrane proteins
                          • primary structure
                            • Sequence of amino acids
                          • Secondary Structure
                            • Alpha helices
                            • Beta pleated sheets
                            • Folding
                          • Tertiary structure
                            • Further folding
                  • The GP is reduced - this reaction uses the NADPH from the light dependent reaction
                  • This reaction uses the ATP from the light dependent reaction
              • Enzyme (RuBISCO) and Carbon Dioxide
            • 10/12 GALPs are used to regenerate Ribulose Bisphosphate
    • Natural Selection
      • There is variation within every species
        • A change in environmental conditions
          • An advantageous allele may arise within the population
            • Random Mutations
            • The individuals with this advantageous allele are more likely to survive
              • They can pass on this advantageous allele to their offspring
                • The allele frequency for the advantageous allele will increase
                  • This allele will be more common within the gene pool
    • The Carbon Cycle
      • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
        • Carbonate rocks
        • Carbon in fossil fuels
        • Carbon compounds in animals
          • Dead organic matter
            • Carbon compounds in plants
              • Carbon compounds in animals
                • Dead organic matter
                  • Carbon compounds in plants
                    • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
                      • Carbonate rocks
                      • Carbon in fossil fuels
                      • Carbon compounds in decomposers
                  • Carbon compounds in decomposers
    • Climate Change
      • Dendrochronology
        • Study of tree rings
      • Pollen in peat bogs
        • Pollen is reserved in peat bogs
      • Ice cores
        • Trapped air can be analysed
      • Temperature records
    • Speciation
      • Natural Selection
        • There is variation within every species
          • A change in environmental conditions
            • An advantageous allele may arise within the population
              • Random Mutations
              • The individuals with this advantageous allele are more likely to survive
                • They can pass on this advantageous allele to their offspring
                  • The allele frequency for the advantageous allele will increase
                    • This allele will be more common within the gene pool
      • Isolation
        • Reproductive isolation
        • Postzygotic isolation
          • Hybrid sterility
            • Healthy individuals produced from the mating of two different species cannot themselves reproduce
          • Hybrid inviability
            • Individuals produced from the mating of two different species are not healthy and do not survive
        • Prezyogtic isolations
          • Reproductive isolation
          • Temporal isolation
            • Species exist in the same area but are active for reproduction at different times
          • Habitat isolation
          • Behavioural isolation
            • populations do not respond to each other's reproductive displays
          • Mechanical isolation
            • The reproductive organs no longer fit together
    • Succession
      • Primary succession
        • when an area devoid of life is first colonised by species (usually lichen or algae on bare rock)
          • The species has to be able to deal with the harsh conditions
          • Pioneer species
            • They alter the environment in a way that makes it unsuitable for them, but suitable for a new species to establish
              • The new species often replaces the pioneer species
              • A similar process occurs many times, through stages know as seres, until a stable community is reached
                • Climax community
      • If succession starts with living things already present, e.g. if grazing is stopped in a meadow which then becomes a woodland, this is known as secondary succession
    • GPP and NPP
      • GPP
        • Gross primary productivity
          • the rate at which energy is incorporated into organic molecules in the plants in photosynthesis
      • NPP
        • The rate at which energy is transferred into new plant biomass that can be eaten by herbivores or decomposers
        • NPP = GPP - R
          • GPP
            • Gross primary productivity
              • the rate at which energy is incorporated into organic molecules in the plants in photosynthesis
  • CALVIN CYCLE

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