Strength training


Strength: the ability of the body to apply a force.

Static strength: a force is applied against a resistance without movement occuring. no change in muscle length (isometric contraction) e.g arabesque on a beam

Dynamic strength: a force is applied against a resistance with movement occuring. muscles change in length (eccentric or concentric) e.g triple jump

Maximum strength: ability to produce a maximal amount of force in a singular muscular contraction.  (maximum weight in one lift) e.g weightlifter 

Explosive strength: ability to produce a maximal amount of force in one or a series of rapid muscular contractions. e.g jong jumper or sprinting in to the box in football 

Strength endurance: ability to sustain repeated muscular contractions over a period time withstanding fatigue e.g wrestling or rowing 

Affecting factors:

  • Cross-sectional area-  greater the cross sectional area of the muscle the greater the strength- 16-30 newtons of force per centimeter of muscle cross section so more cross sectional area more force 
  • Fibre type- greater percentage of FG and FOG fibre types the greater the strength over a short period of time- have large motor neuron with higher force of contractions. 
  • Gender- males have higher strength than females- have higher testosterone levels. however the gap disappears when strength is expressed per unit 
  • Age- peak for females is 16-25 and males is 18-30- decreases with age as there is a decrease in the neuromuscular system, elasticity and testerone levels which reduce muscle mass


  • Maximum strength (one rep test)- one rep of a specific gym equipment to assess an isolated muscle. fully recovered between reps. direct objective measurement of isotonic max strength, easy procedure, most muscle groups can be tested. difficult to isolate individual muscles, trail and error may induce early fatigue, good technique essential, potential for injury. 
  • Grip dynamometer- adjust the grip for hand size, zero the dial, straight arm above the head, arm brought down, the squeeze as much as they can. 3 attempts. simple and objective, inexpensive equipment , high reliability. only forearm muscles are tested, not sport specific. 
  • curl test- continuous sit ups at progressive intensities,timed to a audio-cue, test over when performer can not perform any more,


No comments have yet been made