Maximal strength



Definition Of Maximal Strength- The maximum force the neuromuscular system can exert in a single voluntary muscle contraction.


1 RM Leg Dynamometer

  • Stand both feet on base
  • Subject lifts bar in gradual vertical motion
  • 3 measurements + an average collected

Grip Dynamometer

  • Dial set to 0
  • Puts arm with dynamometer above head
  • Lowers arm and applies maximal grip strength
  • 3 attempts = average collected
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Static Strength

Static Strength Definition- The fore exerted by the neuromuscular system while the muscle length remains constant.


Isometric muscle contractions

Holding a free weight

Eg isometric contractions occur in the tricep brachii on the upwards phase of a free weight bicep curl

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Explosive/Elastic Strength

Definition Of Explosive/Elastic Strength- The ability to expand a maximal amount of energy in one or a series of strong + high intensity movements.

takes advantage of stretch reflex + recoil effect

Triple Jump


Vertical jump test or broad jump jump test most common

16-19yr old male average for VJT 40-49 cm

16-19yr old female average for VJT 36-46cm

Elastic strength may move into the LA system aswell as the ATP/PC system

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Dynamic Strength

Definition- The ability of the neuromuscular system t overcome a resistance with a high speed of contraction.

Uses the LA system more than the ATP/PC system


Wingate cycle test

  • warm up to get HR to 150bpm
  • Weight applied to flywheel
  • Athlete pedals all out for 30secs

Initial peak = ATP/PC system

Longer peak = LA system

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Strength Endurance

Definition- The ability of a muscle to sustain or withstand repeated muscle contractions or a single static action

Can use all energy systems


NCF abdominal sit up test

  • Performer has arms crossed on their chests
  • completes sit ups in time with an audio track
  • Bleeps get faster until the performer drops out

Average for a male= 64-89 situps stage 3-4

Agerage female = 42-64 sit ups stage 2-3

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Factors Affecting Strength

Muscle composition-

more fast twitch muscle fibres, Bigger cross sectional area of muscle + Muscle size = greater potential force


Females have less muscle mass, size and cross sectional area. Females also have less testosterone


Females peak strength= 16-25

Males peak strength= 18-30

due to testosterone levels peaking

old age= less muscle mass + less efficient NM system

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Factors Affecting Strength

Physical inactivity-

Atrophy begins after 48hrs of inactivity (reversibility)

Strength training-

Strength training promotes hypertrophy and reduces atrophy

Weakest point of the joint-

Specific angles eg when elbow is extended to limit strength is reduced

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Strength Training

Multi Gym- Specialised exercise machines / range of resistance exercises

Trains flexible strength as different machines target different muscle groups

Free weights- Non mechanical weights = improved specificity

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Strength Training

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