Skill Acq

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 12-01-11 15:32


Knapps definition

" Skill is a learnt ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty and the minimum outlay of time, energy or both"

Classification of Skills

Muscular Involvement - Gross, fine.

Environmental influence - open, closed.

Continuity - Discrete, serial, continuous.

Pacing - Self-paced, Externally-paced

Difficulty- Simple, Complex

Organisation - Low, High


"An inherited,relatively enduring trait that underlies or supports various kinds of motor and cognitive activities"

Gross Motor Abilities - involve movement physical fitness. (name them)

Psychomoter Abilities - Involve the processing of information (name them)

Types of Practise

Part Practise -Breaking down into subroutines.

Whole Practise - Simple skills (cartwheel) not broken down.

Progressive Practise - parts are practise and then put together slowly (triple jump)

Whole/Part/whole Practise - whole skill done and then areas of weakness and singled out.

Name positives and Negatives of each!

Learning And Performance

We go through specific stages to learn.




Performance - How you perform in a certain situation


4 types..

Visual - mental image.

Verbal - simple clear words.

Manual  -Teacher manipulating body into position.

Mechanical - Equipment to help support.

Name Advantages and Disadvantage

Cognitive - All types (extrinsic). Continuous- throughout performance

Associative- Visual Verbal (extrinsic).

Autonomous- (extrinsic). Terminal - at the end of the performance

The term plateau

Plateau is when performance comes to a stand still and can not be improved any more

Possible Causes: Tired, loss of motivation, giving up.

Strategies to overcome it: positive feedback amd positive reinforcement

Practise Methods

Massed Practise - practises a skill without any breaks or rest.  ( good for discrete skills, can lead to bordem)

Distributive - practises have rest intervals ( all time for recovery, more time consuming).. Most effective

Fixed - Specific movement pattern is practised repeadly in same stable environment ( closed skills)

Variable - Skills practised in many environments (open skills)

Mental Rehersal

When performer Goes through the movement in their mind.

  • Reinforce sucessful movements
  • Cognitive phases
  • Increase speed of learning
  • Muscular neurons fire as if muscle is active
  • Increase confidence.

Mental practise can not be used on its own, is most effective when used alongside with physicaly practise.

Information Processing

Basic Processes

  • Display
  • Sensory input
  • Perception
  • Memory
  • Decision making (translatory mechanism)
  • Effector mechanism
  • Feedback (intrinsic, Extrinsic)

2 Models

  • Whitings
  • Welfords

2 Types of processing

  • Serial - info processed in stages
  • Parellel - proccesses occur at the same time


  • Short term sensory store - All info is held here and comes in through sensory store
  • Selective attention - Filter relevant information into STM
  • Short term memory - Limited capacity, incoming info is compared with previously learned
  • Rehersal/ Repitition- needed to move into LTM.
  • Long term memory - Permanetly, motor programmes stored here.

Strategies to improve memory

  • Rehersal
  • linking
  • Simplicity
  • chucking
  • meaningful
  • enjoyment
  • positive reinforcement

Reaction, response and movement time.

Reaction time

Response time

Movement time

Reaction + movement time = Response time

Factors affecting Reaction time

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Limb used
  • Personality
  • Motivation
  • Body temp
  • Sensory system
  • Intensity of stimulus



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