Skill Acq

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 12-01-11 15:32

Skill

Knapps definition

" Skill is a learnt ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty and the minimum outlay of time, energy or both"

Classification of Skills

Muscular Involvement - Gross, fine.

Environmental influence - open, closed.

Continuity - Discrete, serial, continuous.

Pacing - Self-paced, Externally-paced

Difficulty- Simple, Complex

Organisation - Low, High

Ability

"An inherited,relatively enduring trait that underlies or supports various kinds of motor and cognitive activities"

Gross Motor Abilities - involve movement physical fitness. (name them)

Psychomoter Abilities - Involve the processing of information (name them)

Types of Practise

Part Practise -Breaking down into subroutines.

Whole Practise - Simple skills (cartwheel) not broken down.

Progressive Practise - parts are practise and then put together slowly (triple jump)

Whole/Part/whole Practise - whole skill done and then areas of weakness and singled out.

Name positives and Negatives of each!

Learning And Performance

We go through specific stages to learn.

Cognitive

Associative

Autonomous

Performance - How you perform in a certain situation

Guidance

4 types..

Visual - mental image.

Verbal - simple clear words.

Manual  -Teacher manipulating body into position.

Mechanical - Equipment to help support.

Name Advantages and Disadvantage

Cognitive - All types (extrinsic). Continuous- throughout performance

Associative- Visual Verbal (extrinsic).

Autonomous- (extrinsic). Terminal - at the end of the performance

The term plateau

Plateau is when performance comes to a stand still and can not be improved any more

Possible Causes: Tired, loss of motivation, giving up.

Strategies to overcome it: positive feedback amd positive reinforcement

Practise Methods

Massed Practise - practises a skill without any breaks or rest.  ( good for discrete skills, can lead to bordem)

Distributive - practises have rest intervals ( all time for recovery, more time consuming).. Most effective

Fixed - Specific movement pattern is practised repeadly in same stable environment ( closed skills)

Variable - Skills practised in many environments (open skills)

Mental Rehersal

When performer Goes through the movement in their mind.

  • Reinforce sucessful movements
  • Cognitive phases
  • Increase speed of learning
  • Muscular neurons fire as if muscle is active
  • Increase confidence.

Mental practise can not be used on its own, is most effective when used alongside with physicaly practise.

Information Processing

Basic Processes

  • Display
  • Sensory input
  • Perception
  • Memory
  • Decision making (translatory mechanism)
  • Effector mechanism
  • Feedback (intrinsic, Extrinsic)

2 Models

  • Whitings
  • Welfords

2 Types of processing

  • Serial - info processed in stages
  • Parellel - proccesses occur at the same time

Memory

  • Short term sensory store - All info is held here and comes in through sensory store
  • Selective attention - Filter relevant information into STM
  • Short term memory - Limited capacity, incoming info is compared with previously learned
  • Rehersal/ Repitition- needed to move into LTM.
  • Long term memory - Permanetly, motor programmes stored here.

Strategies to improve memory

  • Rehersal
  • linking
  • Simplicity
  • chucking
  • meaningful
  • enjoyment
  • positive reinforcement

Reaction, response and movement time.

Reaction time

Response time

Movement time

Reaction + movement time = Response time

Factors affecting Reaction time

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Limb used
  • Personality
  • Motivation
  • Body temp
  • Sensory system
  • Intensity of stimulus

Single

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