" Skill is a learnt ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty and the minimum outlay of time, energy or both"
Classification of Skills
Muscular Involvement - Gross, fine.
Environmental influence - open, closed.
Continuity - Discrete, serial, continuous.
Pacing - Self-paced, Externally-paced
Difficulty- Simple, Complex
Organisation - Low, High
"An inherited,relatively enduring trait that underlies or supports various kinds of motor and cognitive activities"
Gross Motor Abilities - involve movement physical fitness. (name them)
Psychomoter Abilities - Involve the processing of information (name them)
Types of Practise
Part Practise -Breaking down into subroutines.
Whole Practise - Simple skills (cartwheel) not broken down.
Progressive Practise - parts are practise and then put together slowly (triple jump)
Whole/Part/whole Practise - whole skill done and then areas of weakness and singled out.
Name positives and Negatives of each!
Learning And Performance
We go through specific stages to learn.
Performance - How you perform in a certain situation
Visual - mental image.
Verbal - simple clear words.
Manual -Teacher manipulating body into position.
Mechanical - Equipment to help support.
Name Advantages and Disadvantage
Cognitive - All types (extrinsic). Continuous- throughout performance
Associative- Visual Verbal (extrinsic).
Autonomous- (extrinsic). Terminal - at the end of the performance
The term plateau
Plateau is when performance comes to a stand still and can not be improved any more
Possible Causes: Tired, loss of motivation, giving up.
Strategies to overcome it: positive feedback amd positive reinforcement
Massed Practise - practises a skill without any breaks or rest. ( good for discrete skills, can lead to bordem)
Distributive - practises have rest intervals ( all time for recovery, more time consuming).. Most effective
Fixed - Specific movement pattern is practised repeadly in same stable environment ( closed skills)
Variable - Skills practised in many environments (open skills)
When performer Goes through the movement in their mind.
- Reinforce sucessful movements
- Cognitive phases
- Increase speed of learning
- Muscular neurons fire as if muscle is active
- Increase confidence.
Mental practise can not be used on its own, is most effective when used alongside with physicaly practise.
- Sensory input
- Decision making (translatory mechanism)
- Effector mechanism
- Feedback (intrinsic, Extrinsic)
2 Types of processing
- Serial - info processed in stages
- Parellel - proccesses occur at the same time
- Short term sensory store - All info is held here and comes in through sensory store
- Selective attention - Filter relevant information into STM
- Short term memory - Limited capacity, incoming info is compared with previously learned
- Rehersal/ Repitition- needed to move into LTM.
- Long term memory - Permanetly, motor programmes stored here.
Strategies to improve memory
- positive reinforcement
Reaction, response and movement time.
Reaction + movement time = Response time
Factors affecting Reaction time
- Limb used
- Body temp
- Sensory system
- Intensity of stimulus