Population and Resources Case Studies



How and why does the number and rate of population growth of population vary over time and space?

Migration to the UK

  • May 2004, 8 countries joined the EU.

  • Gained freedom to move.

  • 500,000 immigrants to the UK since 2004, 63% polish.

  • Most come to work and have a better quality of life. They have added £6 billion to the economy.

  • 82% 18 – 34, reversed the ageing population.

  • Reduced the dependency ratio by 8%.

  • Increased number of males led to intermarriage.

  • 25% of births due to immigrants.

  • Filled jobs locals didn't want.

  • Increased demand for cheaper housing.

  • Increased need for schools.

  • New shops (cultural injection)

  • Generated revenue at 10%.

  • 17% growth due to immigrants.

China's One Child Policy

  • Encouraged a high birth rate in the 1950s.

  • 1979 – one child policy.

  • Fines and had to apply for state permission.

  • 1980 – abortion for 2nd child. Close monitoring.

  • 1987 - relaxation, rural villages could have a second child if the first was disabled or a girl.

  • Led to 300 million fewer people.

  • Sex imbalance.

  • 10 million abortions a year.

  • Increased savings.

  • Elderly have less children to rely on.

  • Female workers.

  • Ageing population.

  • Human rights issue.

  • Rural urban contrast.

Singapore – one or more

  • Small population that was unattractive to MNCs.

  • Ageing population and weak defence.

  • Abortions and sterilisation discouraged.

  • Money incentives for more children.

  • School priority for families with more children.

  • Government childcare schemes.

  • Families with 3+ children could get a larger house.

  • Grants for mothers having a second child before 28.

  • Tax incentive and rewards.

  • Good maternity leave.

  • Failure linked to-High level of stress, Availability of birth control methods due to successful family planning programme, Reduced desires for children, Women putting their careers before motherhood, High cost of living and raising children, Economic downturn in South East Asia, Lack of time to take care of children.

How can resources be defined and classified?


  • Valuable.

  • In 1789 uranium was undiscovered.

  • Mainly used for colouring glass and glazing.

  • Radioactive properties were known in the 20th century but it still had limited use.

  • Uranium isotope U-235 was fissile and was discovered to release huge amounts of energy.

  • It became extremely valuable and a raw material for nuclear weapons.

  • Later it became possible to control fission in a reactor to generate electricity.

  • By 2008 there were 435 power stations in 30 different countries.

  • Its a point source.

  • 3 countries have 60% of it, Canada, Australia and Kazakstan.

UK changes

  • The invention of the Gilchrist-Thomas process in iron and steel industry made it possible to smelt iron from phosphorus iron ore. It lead to the development of iron ore fields in the east midlands.

  • The intense pressure on food in ww2 created advances in agricultural science, made it possible to farm chalk downland for the first time due to new fertailisers. Rubber was also made out of dandelions.

  • Location of oil and gas in deeper parts of the north sea developed when higher costs of oil justified deep


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