the water issue- causes and case studies

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Global issues population and resources
Water issue
Physical factors
Climate: rainfall amount/reliability/rate of evaporation/distribution
Presence of rivers
Presence of underground aquifers
Socio-economic factors
Wealth- technological capability to store and transfer water and to dispose
of waste water
Population- density, rate of growth
Cost of water
Pollution from human/industrial waste
Political factors
Conflict where rivers cross borders
Government targets to halve the amount of people without sustainable
access to safe drinking water by 2015
Government investment in water projects to relieve water stress
Government mismanagement can lead to increased scarcity.
Case study: Sonoran desert
Contains some large rivers as there source lies outside the desert in higher
Underground aquifers supply Phoenix and Las Vegas with most of its water
The extraction of water is becoming unsustainable as the rate of extraction
exceeds the rate of replenishment due to rising population and higher living
standard expectations.
To increase supply of water to meet demand, water has been taken from the
Colorado River through the Central Arizona Project (CAP) which is a $4
billion water transfer scheme.
This shows that if the wealth and technological capabilities are there, then
the water supply can be increased and demand met.
Physical factors such as the actual water supply are also important in
providing a sustainable water supply
Also, socio-economic factor such as growing populations led to improved
water supply as the supply had to improve to meet demand.
Case study: technology in Kerzaz, Algeria

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Global issues population and resources
Wells dug in the desert to reach ground water, allowing a underground
channel to carry this water down hill, creating a constant supply
800 wells transfer water underground using ancient technology
Small scale- sustainable as it is cheap and constant and supplies people,
industry and agriculture.…read more


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