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Slide 1

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How and why the number and rate
of population change varies over
time and space
OCR A2 Geography: population and
resources…read more

Slide 2

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Introduction to population and resources
· Birth rate: number of children born per 1000 people
per year.
· Death rate: number of deaths per 1000 per year
· Fertility rate: the average number of children a
women gives birth to in her lifetime.
· Infant mortality rate: number of deaths of children
in their 1st year, per 1000 live births
· Calculating population change: birth rate minus death
rate, plus or minus net migration (in-migration minus
population change= (BR-DR) +/- net migration…read more

Slide 3

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Introduction to population and resources
Birth rate and death rate are poor indicators of
· As they are based on the population structure of a
· Birth rate is a poor indicator as countries with a
higher percentage of younger people will be shown to
have a higher birth rate as more of those 1000 people
will be able to have children. Therefore younger
populated countries could be seen as underdeveloped
as they would have more children which is seen as a
indicator of low development…read more

Slide 4

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Introduction to population and resources
· Death rate is a poor indicator of development as
countries with an ageing population will have higher
death rates as more of those 1000 people will be
older. Therefore ageing countries could be seen as
underdeveloped as their percentage of deaths would
be high, whereas the rate of deaths may not actually
be much different to other developed countries.
The worlds population is growing despite a falling
population growth rate
· This is because the population momentum is
continuing. There is a higher percentage of young
people so more children are being born even though on
average women are having less children.…read more

Slide 5

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Factors affecting population change-
· Decreasing death rates and infant mortality lead to a
higher population growth rate as less people die. However,
if infant mortality is lower then less children are needed
to compensate for those who die, meaning the birth rate
will decrease.
· The time between death rate and birth rate falling will
affect the rate of population change. Longer time means
the population will grow quicker. Also countries with
developments in health care and living standards earlier in
history took longer for their natural increase rate to fall
as those advancements in heath care were still developing
themselves. Today countries that are beginning to develop
better health care have a quicker amount of time taken
for their natural increase to fall as those advancements
are already well practised and established throughout the
world.…read more

Slide 6

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Factors affecting population change-
· Family planning programs such as those in Thailand.
Thailand had a fertility rate of 6.5 in 1969 which would
take ages to naturally decrease to the desired stage of
the DTM. This high fertility rate was due to only 16% of
the population using contraception and most of the
economy was based on agriculture so large families were
needed for work. The 1970 national family planning
program involved strategies such as:
· Public information programs over the media which
emphasised the benefits of a 2 child family and raised
awareness of contraception.
· Health centres provided free contraception and trained
health workers and midwives. As healthcare survived more
children survived infancy so birth rates could be lower as
less children would be needed to compensate any that died
during infancy.…read more

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