Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Urbanisation Case study:

Sao Paulo, Brazil, LEDC.

  • Population increased in size from 1991 and 2002 by 16%.
  • Impacts of Urbanisation:
  • Poorest district had a HDI lower than sierra Leone.
  • Highest unemployment rate in the country, huge division between rich and poor.
  • 1999, 11, 500 homicides.
  • Affluent elite have helicopters to hop from rooftop to rooftop to get away from danger in the streets.
  • Sub-standard housing occupations 70% of Sao Paulo.
  • Management:
  • Favelos- housing improvement schemes- Residents remaining where they are but changes to public policies, from upgrade of housing and slum removal.
  • Funding from Self-Help Schemes.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

.Calcutta, Urbanisation-Brown Agenda, LEDC.

  • India.
  • Ganges delta is at the centre of an area that has overcrowded dense, rural population.
  • Suffers from disasters.
  • Squatter settlements flood because of the low-lying area from Monsoon rains or cyclones.
  • Issues:
  • Land is low-lying-Many settlements therefore, flood easily.Floods bring diseases in the polluted floodwater.Bad Reputation- they are the worst floods in the world.
  • 1960s 1,000 sewage reated deaths a year from Chlorea in Calcutta.
  • Solutions:
  • Replacing mud tracks between shacks with concrete roads.
  • Widening roads.
  • Safety street lighting.
  • The Calcutta Metropolitan Development authority tried to improve infrastructure by improving sewage disposal, improving water supply-now one tap for every bustee houses, reinforcing banks of rivers and stop people from squatting on low-lying land near the river.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Surbanisation Case Studies:

Kingsmere Estate, Bicester.

  • North-Eastern Oxfordshire.
  • Population 30,000.
  • Closeness to Junction 9 of the M40 Motorway linking Bicester to London and Banbury.
  • Services
  • Increasing infilling of vacant land.
  • Bicester Village is exapanding- train station and Park and Ride Facilities.
  • Issues:
  • Temporary traffic orders.
  • Roads gridlocked from Black Friday.
  • Concerned with town losing character through redevelopment.
  • Open space signs- pin pointing in right direction.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Eco-town case study:

BedZed Hauchbridge:

  • London Borough of Sutton.
  • Beddington Zero energy development.
  • Built on Reclaimed land and focuses on social and environmental sustainability.
  • Aim
  • To make it easy for people living there to have a greener and lower impact lifestyle.
  • BedZed produces 37% less Co2 emissions than average development.
  • Uses 81% less energy for heating and 45% less electricity and 58% less water than average British Homes.
  • Just over half of the construction materials by weight, came from within 35 miles.
  • Over 3,400 tonnes of construction material, 15% total used  in BedZed, were reclaimed/ recycled products.
  • Majority of houses- Solar heated using multi-storey glazed sun spaces.
  • Eco-village saves water and low-water consumption.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Suburbanisation Case study:

NewCastle- Castle ward.

  • Small town with its own services.Absorbed surrounding villages and towns as it grew.
  • Characteristics:
  • By 2000, housing spread to edge of greenbelt, north of castle ward. Pressure caused expansion on the greenbelt land, a law passed. Used for housing and modern science-based industry on Newcastle Great Park. 
  • Housing:
  • Aimed for middle-high earners.
  • Former miners housing and post 1945 council housing.
  • Wealthy, middle class commuter settlements.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Suburbanisation Case Study:

Jesmond Ward- Newcastle:

  • Middle-class-Smaller housing/ flat terraced.
  • Mid- 20th century larger houses.
  • Houses are built for the more affluent people in higher income jobs- built for owners and managers.
  • Richer people able to build large family houses  with lots of space for several servants. 
  • Characteristics:
  • Houses further from centre have rapid growing student population (studentification). Studentification means a large student population in that area..
  • Issues:
  • Studentification causes noise, gardens untreated/ not looked after, A plethora of cars parked on streets. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Reurbanisation Case study: Hulme, Manchester:

  • 10 minute walk away from Manchester city centre.
  • Population of 130,000 in the 1930s- moved away as a result of extensive clearance.
  • Developed in the 1960s as a slum clearance programme.
  • Redevelopment;
  • Cresnets were built in the 1960s-demolished in 1995.
  • Plans to build 30,000 new houses with new shopping areas, roads and facilities.
  • More traditional housing development- two-storey houses and low-rise flats. 
  • 400+ homes improved and refurbished.
  • 3000 homes built and 50 hectares reclaimed. 
  • + positives:
  • Crime was reduced and more social mix of people living in the area.
  • Has a close proximity to city- popular for city dwellers.
  • Green area developed for office blocks attracting big businesses/companies. 
  • Negatives:
  • Neighbouring authorities competed against each other to recieve funding benefits rather than working together. 
  • Large amounts of money was not allocated to need but as a comepetitive advantage. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Urban Decline-Sheffield-England.

  • South Yorkshire, England.
  • A city and metropolitian borough.
  • 5th largest city in England.
  • Characteristics:
  • Flats are outdated -replaced slums.
  • Environmentally blight as severly degraded.
  • Brownfield industrial sites- Heavily polluted from iron and steel waste. 
  • High rise flats rundown and dilapidated. 
  • High unemployment rates.social issues-poverty.
  • Causes:
  • Changes in employment structure.
  • Decline in industry- Iron and steel industry dropped in the 1980s.
  • Natural resources exploited.
  • Park Hill Regeneration Project:
  • 2007 £146 million English Partnership- transformation of park hill estate. Largest grade two listed buildings in Europe- couldn't be knocked down. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Out of town shopping centre-Trafford Centre, Manchester.

  • 10% UK population (5.5 million) live within 45 minutes drive.
  • Opened in 1998.
  • 2005, 29.4 visited the centre.
  • Characteristics:
  • 20 screen cinema.
  • Large anchor stores, non-retail facilities.
  • large lazor quest arena.
  • 36 restaurants, Europes largest food court seating for 1,600 people.
  • Large car parking spaces.
  • Glazed dome is a distinctive feature of the skyline.
  • + postives:
  • Good for all weathers and a wide variety of services/banks.
  • Deals with 120 buses per hour.
  • Shop mobility
  • Negatives:
  • chain stores are too expensive for local businesses to rent space in centre, builds up traffic and  artifical atmosphere. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

 Transport- Case Study: Bangkok Sky Train.

  • December 5, 1999
  • Fast, efficient, cheap.
  • Aim- To revolutionise travel within the Thai Capital.
  • Success:
  • Provides infrastructure to meet country's economic and social needs.
  • Daily commuters- Hundreds of Thousands Bangkok Residents- less stressful.
  • Sustainability:
  • Less air pollution generated in contrast to cars- Runs on Electricity.
  • Doesn't have a clean carbon footprint- unsustainable-fuel generated from fossil fuels as electricty involves the burning of fossil fuels. 
  • Negatives:
  • Overcrowded/cramped conditions.
  • Long flights of steps to station- elderly and disabled are taking the bus instead. 
  • Set up escalators for all stations for accessibilty to everyone including the disabled and the elderly. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

 Transport Management Schemes:-Oxford Park and Ride Facilities.

  • 1970s.
  • Aim- To deal with increasing traffic congestion.
  • + Positives:
  • Enables the commuters to travel into the city centre and to leave their vechicles and transfer to a bus which is a more environmentally friendly policy acoomodating traffic growth.
  • Park and Ride incentive parking.
  • Cheap, fast and frequent.
  • Sustainable as reduces traffic levels in inner city area- intercepts traffic journeys.
  • Buses less emissions- reduces emissions in inner city area.
  • Negatives:
  • Redistributes traffic to other areas.
  • Unsustainable use of land-  May have been build on greenfield land.
  • Redistributes traffic to other areas.
  • Not accessible to everyone- people without cars.
  • Large car parks city/town centres-eyesores/unsightly. 
  • Enables open spaces in city centre for development e.g. housing and not parking spaces.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Sustainable city:

Curitibra, Brazil- Transport scheme.

  • Capital of Parana State.South East of Brazil. 
  • Through sustainable planning- transformed from an agriculture to manufacturing.
  • Suffered from rapid uncontrollable urban growth caused mass unemployment, transport congestion, Lack of basic services and no control on development of squatter settlements. 
  • Developed a high quality of life by prioritising people over cars.
  • Transport:
  • Used bus system- five main arterial traffic roads into and out of the city. Routes have a central bus lane. Triple articulated buses-increasing number of passengers and is 100-200 times cheaper, Buses colour organised according to function.
  • Bus companies paid by km not by passenger.
  • Bus doors wider and Elevated glass boarding tube-for all types of users including disabled.
  • Curitibra as a result of the bus scheme-lowest rates of pollution.initial 25,000 to over 2 million passengers.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Sustainable city: -Curitiba, Brazil.

  • Parks and open space:
  • 28 parks to stop squatter from creating shanty towns in flood prone areas.
  • Owners of skyscapers allowed to add extra stories to their buildings by adding green space around the base of buildings.
  • Park covers 1.4 million m2.
  • Success:
  • Value of surrounding land increased. Parks dual purpose one park used for flood control as park absorbs flood water naturally and created lakes. Saved money and maintenance of hard engineering strategies- the money is used in schools instead or for other social projects.
  • 4 times green space recommended.
  • Housing:
  • Slums cleared via Site and Service Scheme-government offering low interest loans on the landand a free house design for the people.
  • The residents are trained to build houses- makes up large labour force.
  • Public housing programme provided urban poor with 50,000 homes.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Sustainable urban city:-Curitiba, Brazil.

  • Waste:
  • Organised waste disposal.
  • Rubbish sepearted into two categories organic and non-organic.
  • Slums- people collect rubbish and councils paid for weight collected in fruit and vegetables. 
  • Success:
  • Curitiba recycles 2/3rds of its waste.
  • The scheme generates jobs-reduces landfill and is cheaper than landfill- generates money.
  • Library of recycled books.
  • Economy:
  • Manufacture- Volvo. 
  • Brazil-NIC-since 1970.
  • Chosen dominant SE trade winds- blowing pollution away from Curitiba city and high level diversificationbenefits in sustaining the quality of life of Curitiba's citizens
  • Success:
  • Industry developed with surrounding parks-reduces effect on this green land (15% of area is greenfield). 20,000 housing units built in the area..Many Transnational industries.
  • By 2000, over 550 factories operating. Providing 50,000 direct and 150,000 indirect jobs.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Planning and Management case studies:-Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.

  • Largest city in Northeast England.
  • Grew due to the wool trade and famous for coal mines in the area.
  • Urbanisation and suburbanisation:
  • 19th century, ship building and heavy engineering central to city prosperity.
  • Wealthy migrated towards the north away from heavy industriesof the river- north suburbanised.
  • Counter-urbanisation:
  • Manufacturing employment fell by nearly 20% nationally in 1960s and 35% in 1970s- 1.6 million jobs lost. 
  • 1980s, inner city and CBD started to become under pressure from other forms of retailing-Metro Centre has 10,000 free parking spaces and accessibility own junction off the A1.
  • Re-urbanisation:
  • Inner citie- 190s started to decline-loss of industries- deindustralisation-high unemployment , ghettoes, self asteem of the local population, decline in housing stock/ environment. 
  • Movement of industries from inner cities to suburbs-regeneration schemes- Urban Development corporation. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Planning and Management Case studies:-Mumbai, India.

  • Megacity and a World city.
  • Many residents live in illegal squatter settlements(bustees).
  • India's largest city.
  • Mumbai-changed economic structure from textile, mills, seaports to diversified and specialised technical industries.- modern industrial infrastructureand skilled human resources.
  • Mumbai provides 10% of all factory employment and 40% of India's foreign trade.
  • Many TNCS in Mumbai. 
  • Causes:
  • Large level of natural increase and booming economy- migrants move for job opportunities. 
  • Impacts:
  • Dharavi Slum located in Mumbai in India. Millions of people crammed in one sq mile. Setting up homes illegally amongst waste on land- not suitable for habitation. Toilet in street, open sewers.Doctors manage 4,000 cases of dihtheria  and typhoid a day.  Informal shopping areas exisit, moseques, pottery area, family life dominate- 5 to a room, sense of community-close living space/proximity, 85% have a job in the slum and work locally- some are millionaires. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Planning and Management case study: -Mumbai, India.

  • Recycling and waste in Dharavi:
  • Recycling zone-possible way forward. 80% of plastic waste gets recycled in Mumbai.
  • Large scale Redevelopment- $2billion development project planned for land next to Mumbai's finaincial district. Affects recycling district and Dharavi-people relocated.
  • Ancient fishing village under threat and local shops/markets.
  • New Accomodation small-14 storey apartments for the slum dwellers. 
  • Local ideas:
  • Alternative allow slum people to design improvements. SPARC-  (society for promotion of area resource) cente supports efforts of local people and better housing. 
  • Local people would like to add an extra floor to accomodate family members and toilets at the end of each building four floors.
  • Surbanisation:
  • Relocation and growth of new industrial areas. Major railway stations transformed into shopping fronts. Reclaimed areas for wealthy, huts and shanties for the poor. 
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Planning and Management Case Study:

Mumbai, India.

  • Success:
  • People economically graded/ division between people who can afford and people who can not afford better housing. 
  • Population moved from island city into salsette.
  • Counter-urbanisation:
  • Decline in population over 20 years in Mumbai.
  • Other districts-fifty kilometres away are growing in population,
  • Growth of planned towns e.g. Navi Mumbai-Population of 1,110,000 people. Linked to Mumbai by road and rail bridges and an international airport. Acting as a dormitory settlement as commuter to Mumbai for work but live and stay in the town. 
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