Media Studies GCSE- the print and film industries


Section A

Key Concepts



-Media Terminology

Press institutions-

News International:-owned by Richard Murdoch and his company News Corporation

Associated Newspapers:- a subsidy of Daily Mail and General Trust

Northern Shell:- owned by Richard Desmond and publishes the Daily Express

Trinity Mirror Group:- the largest newspaper group it publishes 240 regional newspapers and the national paper The Daily Express

The PCC:- The Press Complaints Commission, a independent body funded by the press industry to regulate the newspaper industry

National Readership Survey:- a non-profit organisation the gives papers estimates of the habits and the estimates of the number of people reading the paper

Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom:- independent organisation set up for the promotion of a diverse, democratic and accountable media.

Case study- Rupert Murdoch

He owns one the most famous media conglomerates ‘News International’. He started out in the Australian media before expanding into the British and American media. He is now a major power in satellite TV and the Film industry along with the Press and the online publishing industry. He owns

The Sun, The Times and (before the phone-hacking scandal) The News of the World. This was closed down on July 8th 2011 but was replaced by The Sun on Sunday.  He introduced the concept of page 3 women which faces criticism because it degrades women.  Fox News coverage of the Iraq war was claimed to be bias and patriotic, because it was seen as ‘peddling propaganda’. 175 of his papers were all pro-war.  The conglomerate News international uses vertical integration because he owns each part of the production, printing and distribution process.  With close alliances to Thatcher and is claimed to have helped John Major win the 1992 general election he had huge power with in politics.  His alliances changed in the 1997, 2001 and 2005 elections where from the conservatives he became pro-labour but in 2010 he changed back to the conservatives by supporting David Cameron. He only supports the most popular candidates to boost readership of his papers at the time of an election.

TABLOIDS- ½ as large as a broadsheet, usually more illustrated and less serious than BROADSHEETS. (The Sun, The Daily Mail)

BROADSHEETS- 37cmX58cm. More serious than TABLOIDS. (The Times, The Independent)

The CONTENT and LAYOUT reflect the target readership of the newspaper.

RED TOPS- these are papers like The Sun and The Daily Star. They are called RED TOPS because they have red mastheads.

MID-MARKET DAILIES- the readership is somewhat between TABLOIDS AND BROADSHEETS. The news stories are more serious in tone it has features but will have less gossip.

New Technology and the Press-

We can now access the news from the Internet, RSS feeds and Smart Phone Apps. Whilst we have 24 hour news channels.

Online newspapers-  the first online paper was the Guardian in 1994, it has made the news instant unlike the print issues which have to adhere to strict deadlines.  It allows for UGC (user generated content);


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