BEN BAGDIKIAN, New Media Monopoly (2004): In 1983, 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news media in the USA. In 1992, ‘fewer than two dozen’ own and operate 90%. In 2000, the number had fallen to six. In 2004, it was four.
TUNSTALL & PALMER (1991): Governments are no longer interested in controlling the activities of media owners.
CURRAN(2003): Four distinct periods about owner intervention and the consequential undermining of journalistic and editorial integrity. 1920- 1950, 1951-1974, 1974-1992, 1997-present day.
GALTING & RUGE, Key News Values (1970): VIP’s- Celebrities and certain countries are deemed more important. Extraordinary- Unusual, doesn’t happen every day. Human Interest- Sad, illness, children involved. East Midlands Today. Dramatic With Clear Consequences- Violence/Racism is on-going but is seldom reported. Threshold- the bigger the event, the more likely it is to be reported i.e. The Royal Wedding.
MILIBAND (1973)- the role of the mass media is to shape how we think about the world we live in. We are never encouraged to be critical of capitalism and are rarely informed of important issues i.e. poverty
TUNSTALL + PALMER (1991)- argues with regard to government regulations. They are no longer interested in controlling the activities of owners.
CURRAN (2003)-owner interference + manipulation of UK newspaper content is strong. Four distinct periods can be seen with regard to owner intervention + consequent undermining of journalist + editorial integrity.
BANDURA, ROSS AND ROSS, Hypodermic Syringe Model (50’s): The Media has a direct and immediate effect.
GENDER IN THE MEDIA:
TUCHMAN: Women are often found in a limited number of roles often delegated to housewives and mothers.
: symbolic annihilation.
MULVEY: male gaze. They are portrayed in a way that will appeal to men.
WOOLF: The Beauty Myth, she discusses how the ideal body is unattainable for most women.
ORBACH: She talks about the pressures to be thin can lead to anorexia.
FERGUSON: Magazines encourage women t be concerned about marriage, family and looking good.
A02, WINSHIP: Magazines can be supportive for women, she uses examples like Take A Break who offer advice for women being abused.
TUNSTALL (1987): the media rarely focuses on mens marital and domestic roles, or claim that fathers’ lack of contact with their children leads to problems such as juvenile delinquency. A02/ WORKING AND SINGLE WOMEN ARE OFTEN SEEN AS BLAMEWORTHY FOR SUCH PROBLEMS.
IN 1999 THE RESEARCH GROUP CHILDREN NOW asked boys between the ages of 10 and 17 about their perceptions of the male characters they saw on TV, in music videos and in movies. Their results indicate that media representations of men do not reflect the changing work and family experience of most men today.
Many males on TV are angry/violent, Men are generally the leaders and problem solvers, Males are funny confident successful and athletic, It is rare to see men crying, Male…