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Media Effects
2 ways of understanding how the mass media affect the audience:
The media is powerful and their audience is passive
They see the audience as active. They use the media to meet their own
needs, selecting what they hear, see and read.

Hypodermic Syringe model:
Assumes that ideologies…

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This theory was largely based on research into shortterm changes in attitudes and
opinions e.g. the media presentations of election campaigns were examined in order
to discover to what extent they changed people's voting intentions. Often, such
studies showed that the media had little effect on people's opinions.


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