sociology 2

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  • Media
    • Theoretical views on media
      • Marxism: media forms part of the rolling class ideology that supports Both the economic base and class inequality
      • Neo-marxism: media reflects and projects the view of the minority elite that control it onto the majority poor and other classes.
      • Pluralism: suggests there are numerous competing groups with different interest influencing the media and different  views on how it influences the public
      • Feminism: media is owned by the patriarchalsociety and reinforces the stereotipical gender roles in the media which are then conveyed by men in normal every day life.
      • postmodernism: they examine the pick and mix aspects of media choice and diversity and the ideas of hyper reality and their effect on society.
    • 4 Media studies
      • 'Use and gratification model': serves as a criticism of both direct and indirect theories as it argues the audience uses the media for their own purposes to satisfy their needs and so they are active agents.
      • Packard 'hypodermic syringe model': this model suggests that the audience passively accepts the messages injected into them by the mass media. Packard believed in a correlation between violence on TV and anti-social behaviour
      • Mulvey 'male gaze': is defined as the act of depicting women and the world, in the visual arts and literature, from a masculine, heterosexual perspective that presents and represents women as sexual objects
      • Gerber 'symbolic annihilation': it is defined as the lack of or underrepresentation of a social group in the media and Gerber said it has been used too much in the media towards the women of society.
    • 4 social factors and the media
      • Age: age refers to the hierarchical rankings of people into age groups within a society and can be linked to inequalities
        • conners: went through different media outlets and found that all his studies showed that older people from 60 upwards were portrayed in a very negative way
        • Osgerby: media representations of youth have changed dramatically from them being in a very positive light to a very negative view in the past 40 years
      • social class
        • social class refers to a group of people with similar levels of wealth, influence and status within  society
        • class and its relation to the media is that media is the main means of mass communication that can show the stereotypical class characteristics and is used my the rolling class to put forward their ideology
      • Gender: either of the 2 sexes (male/female) especially when considered with reference to biological differences rather than social  ones.
        • Westwood: argues that there is a change of representations in gender and uses concepts of transgressive female roles to describe portrayals that have gone beyond gender expectations.
        • Connell:  proposed a concept called hegemonic masculinity which stated that  media promotes the dominant social position of men and the subordinate social class of women
      • Ethnicity
        • Malik:  contemporary media does not accurately reflect the ethnic reality of the contempaary UK.
        • link to media: the media is often accused of being rascal and presenting stereotypical images of ethnic minorities.in particular newspapers and tv have a tendency to present ethnic minorities as a problem.

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