Mumbai, India, Slum Clearance (Dharavi) NIC
- Are clearing slums in phases.
- People who have lived in a slum since 1995 will be given a new flat.
- The Bandra Kurla Complex is planned to be the financial heart of India/ Mumbai and is supposed to attract young, upcoming proffesionals and develop quaternary and tertiary sector in the area.
- Issues are that some small family buisnesses are not going to be relocated.
- Population of 600,000people in 2km2
- Dharavi is situated between Mumbai's two main suburban railway lines.
- Government and private investment companies are paying for it.
Lagos Nigeria, Slum Clearance (LEDC)
- Harsh methods, clearing people out from homes.
- National 'clensing day' Saturday end of every month.
- Getting 'area boys' off the streets.
- Clearing slums built along the railway track so they can get more trains into the city, an extensive rail expansion is also planned.
- Have an area called 'Nollywood' which they hope one day will compete with Hollywood.
- Lots of people live on sand spits which often get flooded.
- Mega City Project- targets & goals to meet.
- State education system in operation across the area.
Rapid Urbanisation- Shanghai, China (NIC)
CAUSES: East coast, so it's ideal for importing/ exporting goods. 1970's population mobility laws were relaxed so people moved to cities. Crude oil and natural gas found in yellow sea.
EFFECTS: Waterways polluted, 'urban heat island effect, decrease in native plant & animal species, smogs due to air pollution became common.
SOLVING ISSUES: Pressure on local government to improve air quality by national government. Redevlopmentof derelict areas, more renewable energy sources being used e.g. solar pannels on buildings.
Doughnut City- Melbourne (MEDC)
CAUSES- 'Austalian Dream' Wanting a large house, with big gardens, etc... High car ownership, Postwar rebuilding and industrial expansion, rapid migration.
CHARACTERISTICS- Accelerating inner city population and CBD decline, Large amounts of commuting, Reburbanisation may have started.
IMPACTS- 'Ghost town' due to empty CBD and inner city at night leads to high crime rates in these areas, high pollution and congestion as people have to commute, one of lowest population density city in world.
MELBOURNE 2030- Managing urban sprawl, reduce population, change demographic structure, Use N. American & European city models to identify sustainability issues.
Urbanisation- Barra da Tijuca (NIC)
CAUSES- Rio's wealthier people wanted an area in which they could live away from the slums. Improved road network into the area. In the 1980s it under went a population explosion. Expressway lkinks Rio's CBD and Barra, many bus routes.
CHARACTERISTCS- Close to beach (18km, Rio's biggest beach.) High rise tower people so they can fit many people into the area. Wealist & Safest of Rio's neighbourhoods, good transport links, biggest shopping mall in South America.
IMPACTS- Many belive the area has lost its Brazilian culture and is becoming too much like a North American or European town or city. They're improving bus and rail transport in to area before the Rio 2016 olympics. High amount of cars commuting, pressures road system.
Edge City- Fort Worth, Dalls (MEDC)
CAUSES- Went from a small town to busy city when it became a stop on Chrisholm trail centre for cattle drivers, 1870's industry set up there, Better transport (interstate loop of Dallas), People have become richer so moved out of Dallas to suburbs meaning the grow. Housing followed by industry, retail & transport all moved there.
CHARACTERISTICS- Lower population densty than Dallas, Similar functions as the main city e.g. hospital, leisure, Public transport connectsing CBD to suburbs.
IMPACTS- Population grow to 1million by 2030, lack of water supply for the population, polution due to traffic and industry thought to be contributing to higher number of children with asthma.
Edge City- Croydon (MEDC)
CHARACTERISTICS- Good transport links (M25/M23), Company headquarters e.g. Nestle headquarters located there. Home to many educational institutions including The Brit School. Home to Whitgift shopping centre so no need to ever enter Central London if you live there.
CAUSES- Better communications mean people can work from home. It is expensive to live in many areas of Central London. Jobs bought to area as more companies relocate there. Currently undergoing regeneration- 'Croydon Vision 2020.'
IMPACTS- Increased polution due to comuting into and out of the city. Traffic flow problems in and out of the city of London, Build more schools & more money into education- 1/3 of population are of school age.
Suburbanised Village- Kinver (MEDC)
CAUSES- Good school attracts people- Edgecliff, Globalisation, broadband mean people now can work from home, Canal network & Kinver Edge= Tourism.
CHARACTERISTICS- A few miles from Stourbridge train station & A449, Socailly diverse, Employment 2.7% (below average,) Mix of housing (cottages & mansions.)
IMPACTS- Poor road networks mean congestion occurs along country roads e.g.A449 only passes outskirts of Kinver. Most people commute to work during the day leaving the village to become empty attracting criminals to the area. Lacks ethinic diversity (6700/6800 White British.)
New Town- Milton Keynes (MEDC)
CHARACTERISTICS- First science parks, surrounded by large areas of green belt land, Cheap land, large production sites & lack od congestion means attracts buisnesses, 5 train stations, Birmingham --> London cannal runs through.
CAUSES- 'Over spill' town for London, Easy access to commute to London, Birmingham, Leicester & Oxford, 1km2 grid patten.
IMPACTS- Designed for cars to be main transport, demography close to national average, lots of green space HOWEVER slowest 3G broadband in UK, no history or deep cultur. 80% more private homes than they wanted were built there.
Property Led Regeneration- Liverpool (MEDC)
CHARACTERISTICS- Centred around Albert Docks. Converted into flats on the top floors which are up to 1/2 million per flat and bars on the ground floor. Brownfield sites, High % of people walk to work, No accomodation for families.
CAUSES- Economic downturn in 1980s meant docks shut down, fell into disrepair. It turned to look at more tertiary/ quaternary work and attract new, young proffesionals. Private investment in 1990s-2000s 2500 units converted, Labour governments urban task force in 1990s pledged regeneration.
IMPACTS- By 2001 population od CBD ^30%, Growth in finance and services, 3x increase in employment. HOWEVER not family friendly, No secondary sector, temporary residents- lack of community, Large divide between rich in new development and those living in relative poverty 5 mins away.
Enterprise Zones - Merry Hill (MEDC)
- Site of Round Oaks Steel Works.
- Includes Waterfront area with buisness and office space.
- Continuos extensions made.
- 10,000 free parking spaces, but lacks rail/ bus links.
- When West Midlands Metro is completed it will terminate at Merry Hill.
- They got govenment money to decontaminate the site.
- Took trade away from Dudley & Stourbridge town centres.
Urban Planning Scheme- Glasgow (MEDC)
CHARACTERISTICS- Slums e.g. Govan cleared into tower block housing, prefab housing estates built on edge of city e.g. Castlemilk, Projects e.g GEAR set up to improve housing & appearance, Gentrification of docks.
CAUSES- Post war high density housing needed redeveloping, M8 motorway built through city centre, deprivation in areas, High unemployment when industry closed down.
IMPACTS- Better transport in/ out glasglow, training sites set up to help unemployment, 300 new factories to area, more social housing HOWEVER splits up communities, transport too good, people can commute, house prices rise in CBD, GEAR- people dont want to live next to those in social housing.
Partnership schemes- Sheffield Park Hill (MEDC)
CAUSES- Couldnt knock down the Park Hill redevelopment as it was a European listed building, Area went into decline due to steel works there shutting down, slum clearence into Park Hill in 1960's, over 50yrs flats have becom run down & out dated.
CHARACTERISTICs- Partnership between Urban Splash and the Local Government £147 million, Also includes housing association, Will provide community facillities such as nursery & affordable housing.
IMPACTS- Improves Sheffs skyline, reduce crime rates, encourages young proffessionals, HOWEVER Splitting up community there, only 40 'affordable housing' units being built, moved futher away from CBD, new people dont want to live next to people in council homes.
Gentrification- Newington Green (MEDC)
- BEFORE: Robbery, Burgalaries, muggings, Anti-Social behaviour & drugs.
- NOW: Property is expensive in London so property prices here have dramatically increased, anti-social behaviour in the area has declined, poor people have been displaced especially of Turkish immigrants. Similar displacments have occured in a similar situation of East Harlem and New York where Peurto Rican immigrants have been displced.
Regeneration Through Sport- London 2012
- HOUSING: 5,000 new homes, cleaned up Europes most polluted ground.
- TRANSPORT: Extension of DLR, £1bn improvement of London's East Line. 30miles of games lanes to open across London.
- JOBS: £16.5 GDP boost durin game, more than 8,000 NVQ achieved as apprentices working on the olympic park, Westfields mall has created 10,000 new jobs in a deprived area.
- SERVICES: Most centres e.g. swimming pool, hockey centre, BMX track will be open for public use.
- NEGATIVES: Only temp. jobs created, house prices in area soared, economic boost was only short lived, taxi business declined 20-40%
Decentralisation of Shopping- Bicester Village
- Cheaper land price.
- Good Atmosphere.
- Pull big name brands.
- Same shape, size, purpose built, 1 story shops.
- Sell last season goods.
- Close to motorways- good for coach parties.
- Cheap, undesirable land means that they can be big.
Resurgence of City Centre Shopping- Touchwood, Sol
- More prosperous area of West Midlands.
- In 1990's Solihull outdoor shopping area struggled to compete with Merry Hill.
- Opened in 2001, 60,000m^2
- Won best UK retail destination of the year.
- 2,000 jobs created.
- Only John Lewis in West Midlands.
- 80 stores, 20 resturants & a cineworld.
- Close to M42, 6,000 parking spaces.
Recycling Methods- Cambridgshire
- Awarded £730 million contract, recycled thousands of tonnes of waste for 28 years.
- Mechanical biological treatmen sorts black bag rubbish.
- Turns rubbish into compost like material.
- Visitors centre for school trips.
- Topped national recycling league tables.
Recycling Methods- Peterborough EARP
(Electrical Appliance Recycling Programme)
- Residents produce 300,000 old electrical appliances annually.
- Goods are collected from homes or depostied in 1 of 4 recycling banks.
- Comply's with legislation, each item is bar coded to ensure quality control.
- Are either reused or recycled.
- Broken down into components.
- Acted as catalyst for community volunteers and provides training for disadvantaged groups.