what is a millionaire city?
a city that has reached 1 million inhabitants e.g. Budapest in Hungary
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what is a mega city?
over 10 mill people living there e.g. Mumbai in India
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what is a world city?
a city that has an influence globally - they are centres for trade & business and they are hubs of culture & science.
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what are the 4 processes in the cycle or urbanisation?
urbanisation > suburbanisation > counter - urbanisation > re- urbanisation.
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what are the 2 causes of urbanisation?
1. Rural-urban migration 2. naturally increasing population... note * migrants tend to be young and looking for work. They then may have children, further increasing the population.
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name 6 Push factors for rural-urban migration
1. desertification 2. farmers unable to pay back loans and may lose their land 3.conflict and civil war 4. natural disasters 5. changes in land use e.g. dams which will flood farmland 6. mechanisation of agriculture
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name 5 pull factors for rural-urban migration
1. more jobs 2. better wages 3. better access to health and education services 4. other family member may have already migrated 5 perception of a better quality of life
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what is the problem of rapid urbanisation in developing world cities?
As the urban population increases, there is a higher demand for resources including services, school, water, space and houses. If these demands cannot be met it can lead to poor quality of life in those areas. The developing countries cannot keep up.
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why do squatter settlements form?
1. migrants can't afford housing 2. not enough space therefore forced to live on the streets 3.unregulated growth of shanty towns and slums
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where do squatter settlements form?
land not suitable for building on; steep (risk of landslide), marshy (floods), over populated, close to roads and railways, previously farmland, no one knows who owns it
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what are the problems of squatter settlements? tension 2. high rim and violence 3. high competition for the lack of formal sector jobs available 4.low wages, poor working conditions, low job security 5.cycle of poverty (children) 6. lack of basics(sanitary, water, sewage)= disease
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what are the two main ways of managing the impacts of urbanisation for developing countries?
1. self help schemes 2. site and service schemes
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name the 4 case studies for alleviating the problems of rapid urbanisation
1. Jakarta for housing 2. mexico for crime 3.India for waste management 4. Rio de Janeiro for traffic management
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what is suburbanisation?
the increased movement of people/ services and industries from the centres of inner urban areas, outwards, towards onto the edges of built up areas.
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what is a suburb?
outlying areas of a city which remains close enough to the city centre to be accessible by commuters
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what are the 4 causes of suburbanisation?
1. de-centralisation 2. de- industrialisation 3. pull factors of edge of city locations 4. technological advances
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what do we mean by technological advances in terms of a pull factor?
advances in transport allow people to commute longer distances and ICT & communications development mean more people can work from home.
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what is de-centralisation?
shift of jobs into the service sector - often tend to be in non-centralised locations to make use of cheaper land prices
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what is de-industrialisation and why does this happen?
*loss of manufacturing jobs in inner city *workers often lacked skills for jobs in service sectors *inner cities experienced a spiral of problems
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what are the attractions of edge of city locations?
1. planing laws more relaxed 2. spacious and green 3. accessibility 4. increase in car ownership 5. business and shops moved there to take advantage of cheaper rent which creates employment opportunities and services in the suburbs
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what are the positive effects of SU for the city centre?
*less need for high rise and high density housing = clearance and replacement *more space = improve transport/ more facilities *derelict land can be cleared which allows environmental improvements to be made/ create recreational open spaces
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what are the positive effects of SU for the suburbs?
*local tax base increases *wealthy people move in therefore facilities that suit them move in i.e. a golf course or gym *retail move in *created employment oppurtunities
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what are the negative impacts of SU on the city centre?
1.decline of inner city 2. decreased jobs 3. spiral of decline communities are split up 4.buildings are left vacant 5.puts people off investing in the area 6.polarisation
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what are the negative impact of SU on the suburb?
1. land price rises as demand rises 2. greenbelt under pressure 3.increased commuting = pollution and congestion 4. decay of local village & community atmosphere increases in size = low density housing yet increase in demand
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what are the 3 type of management schemes for SU?
1. redevelopment schemes 2. schemes to reduce traffic congestion 3. improved flood defence scheme
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what is counter-urbanisation?
migration from urban to rural areas/ smaller settlements
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what are the push factors of CU?
noise and air p, congestion and parking problems, SU cause house prices to rise TF not getting value for money
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what are the pull factors of CU?
housing less dense, outside space, bigger, quieter, improved communication services, technological advances, car ownership
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what are the positive impacts of CU on rural areas?
increase in businesses - new resident have higher disposable incomes, far buildings upgraded and renovated- farmers able to make money by selling unwanted farmland for housing development, schools stay open
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what are the negative impacts of CU on rural areas?
development affects character of rural areas, rural shops and services may close, rural roads & infrastructure may struggle, congestion and air pollution being made, schools may close if residents are older people, housing demand which increase price
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what are the 3 ways of managing CU?
1.developments only allowed if in keeping with the rest of the are 2. some companies offer mobile services that visit rural areas 3.local occupancy clauses (e.g. 3 years residency for lower costing houses so lower income people can stay there)
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what is re- urbanisation?
it is the movement of people back to urban areas
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what are the pull factors of RU?
government favour redevelopment of the derelict brownfield sites, UCD's regeneration programmes - have power to buy land > encourage businesses, Uni's, young & single people want to live close to work and entertainment, re-urbanisation continues
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what are the positive impacts of RU on city centre?
new shops and services, jobs created, crime decreases, tourism increases, money spent in area increases, local state schools benefit
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what are the negative impacts of RU on the city centre?
original residents forced out as services now aimed at wealthier, social tension, jobs created may not be accessible to unskilled, high order replacing low order shops and services therefore old residents forced to travel i.e. laundrette
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what are the 2 management strategies of RU?
1.projects that bring affordable housing to area 2.improving skills of original residents e.g. London Docklands
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what are the 4 steps in urban decline in order?
1. decline in industry 2. increase in unemployment 3. shops and services decline 4.physical environment declines
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how does an industry start to decline?
manufacturing moves overseas which causes industries to close or they move out of city centre where rent is cheaper
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what is gentrification?
when wealthier people move into a run down area and regenerate it by improving their housing.
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what are the positive impacts of gentrification?
1. housing is improved 2.value of housing increases and people can sell for more businesses and jobs 4. crime rates fall 5. fewer derelict buildings
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what are the negative impacts of gentrification?
1. ^ demand = ^ demand > tenants forced out 2. children of the originals unable to afford to stay 3.orig. res. lose shops/ services > replaced by upmarket 4. social tension/ wealth gap
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what was the retailing situation in the 1950's/ 60's?
shops were selling high order goods in town and city centres whilst the shops selling low order goods would be local in neighbourhoods.
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what was the retailing situation in the 1970's?
shops (supermarkets/ DIY stores) moved to the outskirts of towns
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why do we have out of town retailing?
^ car ownership> park directly outside, don't have to carry bags home, fit more shopping in cars, less congestion, cheap parking prices, variety, freezers, under one roof, accessible, cheap to build them as brownfield, social outing (leisure complex)
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what are the negative impacts of OOTSC on nearby centres?
*competition can force city centre shops to lose which leads to the loss of jobs. *the decline of people going to the city centre can cause closures *decline in investment into city centre
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what are the positive impacts of OOTSC on nearby centres?
1. decrease in congestion and pollution 2. local government and councils may set up a re development scheme e.g. watford
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what are the negative impacts of OOTSC on the rural - urban fringe?
1. requires a lot of construction e.e motorways and junctions 2. noise and air pollution 3. congestion
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what are the positive impacts of OOTSC on the rural-urban fringe?
1. jobs for centre and jobs for construction 2. built on brownfield sites that would've been left 3. local houses increase in value
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what are the different strategies for redevelopment of city centre?
1.make more attractive, pedestrian zones, disabled access shopping malls, renovating 3.street markets = atmosphere 4.public transport = decrease congestion 5.CCTV, lighting 6.late night shopping 7.conserve history
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what are some ways to revive the CBD?
1.more cafe's, bars, restaurants, entertainment venues 2. free cultural entertainment 3.flagship attractions 4.theme areas e.g gay village Manchester 5.more residential areas close by
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what does sustainability mean?
meeting the needs or people today in a way that doesn't damage the environment or use up resources, so people can continue to meet their own needs in the future.
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why is sustainability in urban areas difficult to achieve?
1. urban areas have large dense populations= environmental problems 2. the schemes set up to manage the impacts are usually the easiest or cheapest in the short term rather than sustainable
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what are the 5 ways of managing waste in order from the least sustainable to the most sustainable?
1.landfill 2. composting 3. recycling 4. energy and recovery 5. reduce and reuse
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why is landfill not sustainable?
*releases carbon dioxide and methane *pollute groundwater *waste valuable material that could be reused or recycled * in developing countries people live and work on LF sites - puts them at risk of disease
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why is composting sustainable?
because it decreases the amount of waste going to landfill, and biogas, which is produced from composting, is a renewable energy source that doesn't rely on fossil fuels
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what does large scale composting involve?
collecting compost from peoples home and from public waste. The material is transported to reactors, where microbes break it own anaerobically which produces two useful products - bio-gas & nitrogen-rich fertiliser
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why is it important for composting to managed properly too succeed?
because if waste isn't sorted properly, it can cause contaminations which means it cannot be sold for agricultural use because it would pollute the soil and could be harmful to the people/ animals eating the crops.
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give 4 advantages of recycling
1. quick and cheap 2.uses less energy than making new things 3. reduces demand for raw materials 4. reduces waste going to landfill
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give 3 difficulties of recycling
1. relies on individuals 2.recycling costs money 3.lots of UK recycling is sent abroad and transporting materials produces emissions
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give one way in which energy recovery is sustainable, and one way in which it isnt
one way in which it is sustainable is that it reduces the use of fossil fuels. one way in which it isn't sustainable is that it produces CO2 and other emissions.
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what is energy recovery?
energy recovery is when waste that can't be composted, reused or recycled is burnt to generate heat and electricity.
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give an example of a way an individual can reduce the amount of waste
by registering with the mail preference service to reduce the amount of junk mail received.
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give an example of a way in which a business can reduce the amount of waste
by reducing the packaging on food
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why are the number of cars on the road increasing?
*more people living on outskirts and therefore commute to work *increasing wealth = increasing car ownership *delivery businesses i.e. on-line shopping
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why isn't driving cars sustainable?
it causes air pollution which can reduce people'd quality of life, emissions which damage the environment, and congestion which means journeys take longer
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why does improved public transport make cities more sustainable?
produces less emissions per passenger than cars
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what are the 3 ways of reducing car use?
encouraging cycling, walking and use of public transport
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what are the road schemes?
bus lanes, cycle lanes, high occupancy vehicle lanes
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what is an integrating transport system?
it means coordinating different types of public transport, e.g. making train arrive times match bus departure times.
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why are integrating transport systems good?
1. makes it easier for people to transfer between different types of transport 2. makes people more likely to use public transport
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what are the different types of traffic management schemes?
1. bypasses 2. park and ride schemes
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give some examples of low carbon vehicles
1.hybrids 2. hydrogen vehicles 3. electric vehicles 3. bio fuel ran vehicles
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in what way are low carbon vehicles sustainable?
they improve air quality because emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxides are reduced.
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what are the difficulties with low carbon vehicles?
1. they are expensive to buy 2. difficult to refuel if the facilities aren't available 3. the electricity in the electric vehicles is generated by burning fossil fuels.
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Card 2


what is a mega city?


over 10 mill people living there e.g. Mumbai in India

Card 3


what is a world city?


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Card 4


what are the 4 processes in the cycle or urbanisation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what are the 2 causes of urbanisation?


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