What is blue water a good example of?
A regional shopping centre
Where was it built?
In a disused chalk quarry which was in use throughout the 1960's-1980's,
How many hectares of retail space does Blue water have?
Over 14 hectares
How many hectares of space for indoor use?
Nearly 1.5 hectares
How many visitors does Blue Water have each year?
What is this called?
A large population threshold population
Blue Water - Whats there?
Whats in Blue Water?
- 320 shops
- Parking for 13,000 cars
- 3 anchor stores - John Lewis, M&S, House of Frasier
- Cafe and Restaurants
- 50 acres of lake and parkland
- 12 cinemas
How late is it open each day?
Blue Water - Location
Where is Blue Water located?
Located in Kent, South East England
35 km from Central London
Nearest towns are Dartfford and Gravesend
How much money has Blue Waters developer spent on public transport around that area?
Key facts about the great transport links:
- 40 minutes from Central London
- A mile from the M25
- Good rail links
- Free parking
Problems with developing cities
What are the problems with developing cities?
- Many cities in the developing world do not have an infrastructure that is capable of dealing with the massive increases in population.
- The governments do not have sufficient funds available to maintain the facilities, let alone improve them.
- Particular problems arise because of the inadequacy of the road and sewerage networks
Increase levels of pollution:
- The hidden economy can add to the levels of pollution as small, unlicensed industries are set up in peoples homes or on rooftops.
- These industries release their pollutants into the air, land and water.
Overcrowding leading to poor housing:
- Migrants especially are having to create their own shelter which is forcing more people to become homeless.
- Also it is putting a strain on resources
What is an urban area?
A city or town
What is urbanisation?
This is when rural areas (the countryside) are becoming urban areas.
It involves an increase in the amount of people living in the urban areas.
The urban area will also grow in size to cover a greater physical area and there will be a move away from primary employment to secondary and later, tertiary.
Give two reason why urbanisation occurs?
Models from Burgess and Hoyt
Models from Burgess and Hoyt
Burgess concluded that city land-use could be identified as a series of concentric rings around the CBD.
The CBD will contain all the major shops and offices and be a centre of entertainment.
Surrounding this CBD will be the oldest housing, which is in a state of deterioration. Industry will also feature in this area. This is the area often referred to as the inner city or 'zone of transition'.
Then, we get three rings of housing. The first will be high density, poor quality that traditionally houses the workers for the factories.
Next, is slightly lower density, middle class housing. These will be semi-detached with gardens.
Finally, there is a ring of high class housing for those who can afford to commute.
Weather and Climate
What is weather?
Short term, its the hourly changes include precipitation, hours of sunshine etc.
What is climate?
The average weather conditions taken over a 30 year period. Creates a general picture for the type of weather in a particular area.
Weather and Climate - Atmosphere
There are four layers within the atmosphere all with their own characteristics
- Troposphere - layer characteristics:
- Decrease of temperature with height (6.4 degrees per 1000m).
- Increase in wind speeds with height.
- Fall in pressure with height.
- An unstable layer due to the presence of cloud, pollution water vapour and dust.
- The tropopause marks the outer edge of the troposphere and the limit to the earth's weather and climate.
- Stratosphere - layer characteristics:
- Temperatures increase with height in this layer, and it is here that ozone is concentrated, which absorbs UV radiation from the sun.
- Winds increase with height but pressure falls.
- The boundary is marked by the stratopause.
- Mesosphere - layer characteristics:
- A rapid fall in temperature with height, caused by a lack of water vapour, cloud and dust).
- Temperatures are extremely low and winds high.
- Its boundary is marked by the mesopause.
- Thermosphere - layer characteristics:
- The outer layer of the atmosphere.
- A rapid increase in temperature with height, exceeding 1000 degrees.