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Technological fix
The geography of technology

Defining technology
Examiner's tip: make sure you learn the definition of technology for the exam.

TECHNOLOGY-the development of knowledge, techniques and systems which can be used to help solve problems and extend
human capabilities. People require innovative change to modify the environment to supply…

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Examples of access denied technology
HIV/AIDS- the retroviral drugs are protected by companies that have developed them and this prevents cheap `generic'
copies being made so the developing world cannot afford.
Nuclear technology is denied in countries such as Iraq, Iran and North Korea because of the economic sanctions placed…

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However, as a result of the increased changes due to climate change, this means that by 2030 the barrier will be unable to cope.
This is because the risk that London could flood has doubled from 1/2000 to 1/1000. Yet it could last until 2070 if upgraded and
this takes…

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Nigeria has the largest internet access in Africa.

LEAPFROGGING has occurred.

What are the barriers to access?
Poverty/economic development-wealth are required to implement new technology.
Political stability-a country must be politically stable in order to make technological advances. The instability in Libya
is probably the reason behind its low percentage…

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Patent system allows businesses and individuals to benefit from their inventions which can prevent access and innovation.

Globally, the WTO protects intellectual properties

Technological leapfrogging

What have been the emerging technologies that allowed this?
o 1800s- telegraph
o 1940-TV
o 1970/1980- PCs and mobile phones.
o 1990/2000- internet.
According to…

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There are two approaches to the issue of environmental damage and pollution:




DDT
Following World War II, it was promoted as a `wonder-chemical', the simple solution to pest
problems large and small; however, it was banned for agricultural uses worldwide by the 2001
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The…

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How is Western Europe tackling CO2 emissions?

Germany

`Environmental zones' ­ this has occurred in Berlin, Cologne and Hanover where all vehicles must display a coloured
sticker which costs 10 to enter the city centres.
Market-based: incentives to not go into the city centre by cars.
`Electronic heavy goods vehicle…

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Sulphur is also able to absorb the heat rising up from the Earth's surface and so reduce the temperature difference between
the lower and upper atmosphere.
It has a potential to reduce the temperature by 0.5 degrees Celsius.

What technology is involved?
Used a water pump and a helium filled…

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Iron fertilisation (`seeding the ocean')
Iron acts as a fertiliser for many plants, e.g. phytoplankton which stimulates the growth and is used for carbon dioxide
through photosynthesis.
This is supposed to help reduce the temperatures.




Changing the structure of the food web by infusing the ocean with iron and promoting…

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Synoptic links

Unit 1

World at risk
Adaption strategies.
Large-scale geo-engineering technological fixes.

Unit 3

Energy security
Renewable energy technology.

Water conflicts
High-tech engineering technologies.
Intermediate technologies.

Bridging the development gap
Use of intermediate technology.
Leapfrogging.
Use of high-tech projects.

Superpower geographies
Research and development.
Patents, royalties and licence fees.…

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