World Cities Topic Revision

My World Cities notes I made for my 2015 A-level exams; some case studies are interchangeable. 

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  • Created on: 07-12-15 21:34
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World Cities Revision
Millionaire Cities:
These are urban areas with more than 1 million people e.g. Budapest;
Mega Cities:
These are urban areas with more than 10 million people e.g. Mumbai
World Cities: These are urban areas which have a global influence. They are normally
centres of trade, business, culture and science e.g. London, Tokyo. These cities house the
headquarters of many Transnational Corporations (TNC's), are centres of world finance
and provide international consumer services.
Urbanisation: Characteristics, Causes and Effects
Urbanisation: An increase in the proportion of a county's population that lives in towns
and cities. The two main causes of urbanisation are natural population growth and
migration into urban areas from rural areas.
Natural population growth causes urban growth because young adults traditionally migrated from
rural areas and are in their fertile years, so the rate of natural increase is usually higher in cities
than in the surrounding rural areas.
There are both push and pull factors that affect rural-urban migration:
Push Factors Pull Factors
Growth of population ­ over-farming, soil More job opportunities which are generally
erosion, low yields better paid
Agricultural problems Earning money from the informal sector
High levels of disease Better quality social provisions
Natural disasters or war Perceived better quality of life
Case Study: Urbanisation in Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo, located on the South/East coast of Brazil, is the largest city in the southern hemisphere
and in 2008 had a population of 19 million. Its population density is 21,000 persons per km2
(double that of Paris). Initially grew because of agriculture and exporting goods, and is now a
major industrial centre with manufacturing and service industries.
Variations in the quality of life: highest unemployment rate in the country. Three housing types
dominate: condominiums (luxury housing blocks); cortices (inner city rented accommodation);
favelas (small, poorly built informal settlements). 60% of population growth has been absorbed by
the favelas.
Heliopolis ­ the largest squatter settlement: has 100,000 people in poverty. Services are poor,
there are open sewers, power is limited, there is a lack of professionals, and drinking water is
usually polluted, causing disease.
Improvement schemes: government provided serviced plots for building with mains water,
electricity, sewerage, and roads ­ site and service schemes.
Suburbanisation: Characteristics, Causes and Effects
Suburbanisation: The movement of people from living in areas in the inner parts of a city
to living on the outer edges. It has been facilitated by the development of transport
networks and the increase of car ownership of private cars that allows people to commute
to work easily.

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Reasons for suburbanisation includes the opportunity to buy bigger houses with driveways and
gardens, with a better standard of living and lower crime rates. Also, because of the improved
transport links and increased car ownership, it is easy to commute whilst living in a less crowded
area.
Case Study: Suburbanisation in Surbiton
Situated in South/West London, Surbiton's population has increased to 160,000 in 2011 due to
suburbanisation.…read more

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Affordable housing should make up between
30-50% of the total with emphasis on large family homes. They must have a management body
which will help to develop the town, provide support for people and businesses moving to the
new community.
Case Study: Eco-Town
The UK planned to build 10 Eco-Town's by 2020.…read more

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High population out migration figures.
Many empty/derelict properties and many boarded up shops.
Closing of schools and low education levels.
High unemployment levels, crime rates and vandalism.
Low levels of participation in local democracy.
Urban Decline Case Study: Hackney
Hackney is a North/North East Borough in inner London. It is the forth worst local authority in
the UK for child poverty and crime rates, and has the worst unemployment rate in the country
at 16.4% (N.A-5.3%).…read more

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Are effectively and fairly governed with a strong sense of community.
The Holly Street estate redevelopment in Hackney created a new neighbourhood of streets with
pitches roofs and gardens. They also aimed to remove fear of crime, improve security and mental
and physical health of residents. The Coin Street Community Builders (CSCB) is a social enterprise
that has built social housing and commercial developments including Oxo Tower Wharf on
London's South Bank. It does not distribute profit but uses them to cross-subsidise activities.…read more

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Light pollution.
Now acting as a growth pole, attracting hotels, business parks and other retail to an
already busy area.
The Redevelopment of Urban Centres
CBD's contain the principle commercial areas and major public buildings and is the centre for
business and commercial activities. It is accessible from all parts of the urban area and has the
highest land values in a city. Retailing is declining due to competition with out of town
developments. There is often segregation of the different business types.…read more

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And also, the left over aluminium scraps can be used for
corrugated roof tiles. ;l
This is similar to what is happening in Nairobi, Kenya, where it is common for people to collect and
make use of other people's rubbish such as old tyres, washing machine doors, glass bottles, and
food waste for compost.…read more

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