• Psychological Security: no fear of anxiety
  • Approval: being shown affection praise or positive reguard
  • Social Contact: being with others
  • Social Support: trusting people who want to help you
  • Choice: being able to make decisions
  • Occupation: having something to do that interests you
  • Dignity: showing a person respect and not demeaning
  • Effective Communication: allowing access to information they need
  • Stimulation: having something to do that interests and challenges you
  • Privacy: opportunities to be undisturbed
  • Autonomy: having effective control over your actions and not allowing anyone else to change your actions or beliefs
  • Confidentiality:preventing sensitive information from being spread
  • Equitible treatment:being treated in a fair way that may not necessarily be being treated in the same way as others are treated.


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  • Physical Safety and Hygiene: absence of serious risk of injury and absence of risk of infection
  • Exercise: being physically fit, has its long term effects
  • Nutrition: having a balanced diet and remaining healthy
  • Physical Comfort: absence of cold, heat and unpleasurable stimulation
  • Freedom from Pain: pain relief techniques or medication that helps you to feel better
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Why Treat Someone Well????

Ethical Reason: It is your duty in the health care profession to treat each client as well as you can as it is your job to do so.

Practical Reason: Clients tend to behave more cooperatively if they are treated well they will then recover sooner and have fewer problems

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Types of Bad Treatment

Neglect: Ignoring or failing to attend to someones needs

Rejection: Showing a client in someway that you do not accept responsibility for them

Hostility: Expressing dislike or aggression by verbal or non verbal communication

Punishment: Responding to a clients unwanted behaviour in a unpleasant way by creating consequences

Bullying: Physically abusing, intimidating or using demeaning language in a unpleasant way

Violence: Physically hurting a client without producing a detectable injury; smacking

Unfair Discrimination: acting differently towards a certain group of people. sex, sexuality, ethnicity

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Barriers to Treating People Well - Carer Barriers

Conformity of inappropriate workplace norms: Copying behaviour of what other staff do that is seen as normal

Attitudes and Prejudice: Long lasting set of beliefs and prejudging people so not treating them the same as others

Lack of Motivation: Don't enjoy their job so don't see a reason of why they should help them

Lack of Skill: They don't know what to do so this stops them from treating the patient in the best way possible

Preoccupation of own needs: Focus on their needs not the clients, if they don't like to do something they wont do it

Sterotyping: One group of people all share the same characteristic

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Barriers to Treating People Well - Client Barriers

Lack of Status and Power: occupation, abilities, wealth and respect means that they cant question the staffs actions as they are higher in status

Tendency to conceal real needs and Concerns: Not presenting the real problem, hiding them because they are embarrassed or nervous

Tendency to exaggerate Real Needs and Concerns: Attention seeking behaviour, wasting staffs time but then next time they may not be as willing to listen when you do have a real problem

Hostile or Obstructive Behaviour: Aggression and anti social behaviour that makes it difficult for staff to do their jobs

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Caring Skills And Techniques


Social Perception

Working Alongside


Setting Challenges

Effective Communication

Encouraging adaptive behaviourse

Showing Approval

Physical Contact

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Caring Skills and Techniques 2

Creating Trust

Gaining Compliance


Reducing Maladaptive Behaviours


Using Eye Contact

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  • NHS base service on clinical need not ability to pay
  • Shape services around each individual patient
  • support and value its staff
  • keep people healthy and reduce health inequalities
  • respect confidentiality of clients and provide all clients with the information they need


  • right to refuse treatment
  • have access to all information they need
  • to confidentiality
  • right to treatment reguardless of their wealth
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  • Look after your own health
  • Care for yourself when appropriate
  • Give blood, carry organ donor card
  • Listen carefully abotu treatment and follow advice from practitioners
  • Treat staff with respect
  • Keep to appointments
  • Return Equipment
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  • General Practitioner: book appointment, non emergency treatments, consultation: diagnose, test, treat. Referral in some cases to a consultant. Access by self referral - you decide to visit GP an book appointment.
  • Accident and Emergency: 24 hours, emergency medical care that is unexpected. access: call 999 or self referral if you can make your own way there. Triage nurse assesses you, most serious cases are seen first - can wait hours to be treated. Diagnose - x rays, Treat - bandage/cast, Discharge or admitted to another ward
  • Day Surgery: no over night stay in hospital, faster recovery - less chance of infection, less expensive, less time consuming. GP consultation who then refers to a consultant who will perform the surgery
  • Community Nursing: qualified nurses, visit homes, give injections, change dressings, especially for ill, elderly or disabled. Professional Referral - by GP or social worker who has assessed clients needs
  • Health Visitor: come to home, specialises in illness prevention rather than treatment, newborn check of development. Professional referral usually following the birth of a child
  • NHS DIRECT/ NHS DIRECT ONLINE:minor symptoms, reduce demand on GP low cost, call nurses, self referral
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Early Years Care

Informal Care: care provided by someone not qualified or paid to do the job, family, neighbour or friend

  • Day Nursery: few months - 5 years, hours whilst parents work, play activities, sleep meals provided
  • Creche: few months - 5 years, connected to the workplace, easy reach of children, activities and sleep
  • Playgroup:3-4years, 2 hours a day, 2 days a week, provides social contact and stimulation and is preparation for school
  • Nursery Schools: structured activities, qualified nursery teachers and nursery nurses, 3 and 4 year Olds, preparation for school, free of charge, limited to those living in the area.
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Care of the Elderly

  • Needs assessment: social workers, assess living conditions and independent living skills, recommends a service that would be best for them, self referral call social services or hospital, when discharged it can be arranged.
  • Home/domiliciary Care: in the clients home, promotes independence, doing daily tasks like washing, dressing, cooking and provide social contact and stimulation
  • Day Centers: attend once or twice a week and spend the day there, transport to and from the center and usually 1 trained nurse present. Access by request from client or by recommendation from a practitioner.
  • Nursing and Residential home care:nursing home is for people with greater health problems. Long term accommodation for those unable to live at home even with help, own a bedroom and own bathroom, daily tasks helped with like washing and dressing, alarm system in each room, family atmosphere. Access, for fee paying clients apply straight to home, non fee paying needs a needs assessment as they are funded by social services.
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Special Educational Needs

  • Special Schools:equipt with the specialist equipment, teachers specially trained, small class sizes - one to one, travel further to get to school and curriculum is based on individual abilities of each child
  • Support within mainstream schools: teacher assistant helping the child within the classroom, works with the child in the lessons on the school timetable
  • SENCO, Special Educational Needs Coordinator refers the child to a educational psychologist who assess the child and produces a statement of needs. This will state what help the child needs in the special school or within the mainstream school
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Barriers to Accessing Services

  • Inadequate Resources: lack of funding, staff and equipment, causing long delays before treatment. Lack of staff. Can be solved by increasing tax so more money can be put into the health profession
  • Ignorance: no knowing a service is available to you, not knowing there is no cost, not knowing how to access the service. All can be solved by education - tv adverts etc.
  • Physical Difficulties: not being able to attend an appointment, lack of transport, especially with the elderly and disabled. overcome by walki in clinics, local organisations providing transport and community nurses doing home visitis.
  • Communication: DOnt speak the same language, deaf or blind or illiterate. overcome by multilingual services, braille, translators, sign language.
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Owen McEvoy


This isnt effective communication, this is effective caring.

Still very helpful though.

Sam Morran


Not Communication but an excellent resource on caring.  I like the detail and ideas to help with learning.  I also like the different examples included.

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