Autism

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  • Downs syndrome
    • Definition
      • Chromosomal condition, caused by a copy of chromosome21.
    • Physical LQF
      • Physical safety and hygiene: Needs to be safe and clean at all times. No further injury or harm.
      • Exercise: Help to get more mobility.
    • Symptoms
      • Things develop slowly and not properly, the heart, brain, regulation of metabolism.
      • Affected physically and with learning difficulties.
      • Physical factors are: eyes that slant upwards, small ears, flat back of head, small mouth, short fingers, single crease across the palm, lose skin on back of neck, poor muscle tone.
      • Average IQ of 50, learning difficulties: memory problems, concentration problems, difficulty problem solving, cant understand consequences of actions.
    • Progression
      • No cure, many treatments help you live healthy, active and independent life, support groups, early intervention groups, physio, speech therapists, dieticians and social workers.
    • Potential impacts adulthood
      • Social: If working, others at work may exclude the individual due to their condition, due to their learning difficulties, it may be hard to make friends.
      • Financial: High cost for travel to hospital appointments, any promotions may be affected by lack of flexibility, may have to leave work due to the conditions, if they cannot hold down the job, therefore they have a lack of income.
      • Emotional: may become upset or depressed if they are unable to work, may become upset if they are socially excluded and isolated.
      • Effect on parent/carer: be anxious about how they are coping at work, anxious as to how they will cope without them, social exclusion from other families as they dont want an autistic person around.
      • Intellectual: Learning difficulties may affect job opportunities, lack of qualifications may affect any job opportunity, regular hospital appointments means they need time off and they aren't flexible.
      • Physical: Poor health due to parts of the body not developing properly such as the heart and brain.
    • Service provision
      • Domiciliary care: If they cant do day to day tasks themselves, like washing, dressing etc.
      • Respite care: Give carer a break and also gives them a break, get to do things they dont get a chance to do.
      • Day care: travel there to interact with others, social contact and chance to socialise.
      • Mainstream provision: if they cant attend full time school, 1 to 1, small groups, cant cope with large groups due to communication, socialise with other children who dont have special needs, extra unit, if special school is too far.
      • Special schools: individual attention, teachers are specifically trained for special needs, inclusion, extra support, SEN provision, IEP, strategies to manage child, differentiation, involvement, SENCO aware of childs needs and inform teachers and TA's their needs, support for statementing and liaise with parents and regular meetings.
    • Barriers
      • Societal
        • Low expectations of ability: Think they cannot do certain things others can like use public transport themselves, or a low IQ.
        • Social exclusion: might not want to socialise with them as they are different, might be embarrassing or parents may be over protective.
        • Societal expectations: Like having a job, but might not be able to get one or hold it down.
        • Resulting from ignorance, prejudice and discrimination: Lack of understanding as they are different.
      • Employment
        • Lack of opportunities due to discrimination: employers may discriminate if they knew the range of ways they can be affected. Might not offer them a job or might not get promotions.
        • Lack of flexibility: Due to symptoms  and hospital appointments so need days off.
      • Economic
        • Access to benefits: they might receive benefits due to leaving their job.
        • Requirement for specialist support not provided by state: May need care not provided by state, so have to pay or compromise.
        • Lack of access to benefits: Might have a lack of knowledge about benefits and not be able to complete form.
        • Potential loss of earnings: Might not be able to hold down a job, due to lack of concentration. Might have had to leave job.
      • Education
        • Poor provision/access: may require extra care, support 1 to 1 support, the school may be a long way from their home so they sacrifice the support.
      • Environmental
        • Access to public/private transport: unable to drive and local bus stop might be far away.
        • Poor accessibility of services: transport may  be too far away from their house.
    • Risks
      • Stress: due to pressure from school, stressed due to bullying.
      • Abuse: Verbal and physical abuse from others, if they dont understand it.
      • Bullying: Bullied in school as they are different, other child find it hard to understand why they are different, and they are vulnerable.
      • Social isolation/exclusion: People may discriminate if they dont have any friends, bullied, embarrassed to be with them due to behaviour, seen as different. Like to be on their own.
    • Legislation
      • Mental capacity act: Covers major decisions about financial affairs, property and where they live, helps them make important decisions that they cant on their own, in their best interest.
      • Care standards act: promotes high standards of care and protects vulnerable people, domiciliary etc. Ensures they get high standard and effective care.
      • Childrens act: ensures they are protected from any harm and that they are safe and cared for in all educational settings.
      • Equality act: Ensures everyone is treated the same and not discriminated against, provides legal rights if they are, so action can be taken.
      • Policies/codesof practice
        • Workplace bullying policy: Anti-bullying policy, provides safety and protection, ensures they are happy and action can be taken if they are bullied.
        • Child protection policy: provide children and young people  safety and protection while at school, promotes good practice, relates as they are kept safe and protected by staff.
        • Risk assessment: Done to protect them and so they are safe, nearest fire exit, general awareness of classroom equipment and facilities.
        • School bullying policy: anti-bullying policy protects children and makes them feel safe, action can be taken if bullied.
      • Mental health act: protect the rights of people with mental health condition, protects exploitation from others, also protects society from dangerous behaviours.
      • Mental capacity act: Cover major decisions about money, property, where they live and health. If they cannot make the decision themselves, made in their best interest.
    • Potential impacts childhood
      • Social: Not understanding the consequences of their actions could cause them to become lonely and socially excluded, problems with learning social skills required for social interaction, isolated as it affects the ability to build relationships, hard to make friends.
      • Emotional: may feel self conscious and embarrassed due to poor muscle tone because of the problems with regulating their metabolism. Physical appearance differences could make them self conscious that they are different.
      • Financial:  High cost for travel to regular hospital appointments.
      • Intellectual: learning difficulties, affect education, intellectual development is impaired,delayed speech, cant access curriculum, might not have specialist support, problems concentrating, memory problems.
      • Effect on family/carer: parents may miss time off work due to regular hospital visits, put pressure on job and income, leave their job due to caring for the child, social exclusion, other families might not want a DS person around, develop depression due to stress and demand of looking after the child, siblings become more independent as they learn more attention is needed for the DS child.
      • Physical: Poor health due to parts of the body not developing properly such as the heart and the brain.
    • Practitioners
      • Social worker: Reviewing their needs at home and helping with socialising.
      • OT: have problems completing some tasks due to poor muscle tone, help them complete it step by step.
      • Hospital consultant: Have to have operation for hole in the heart
      • SEN teacher: Providing them with learning opportunities,using effective treatment and provide them with 1to1 support.
      • Physio: problems with joints, provide exercises and gain more mobility.
    • Psychological LQF
      • Social support: Not alone or excluded.
      • Psychological security:so they dont experience fear or anxiety or become distressed.
      • Effective communication: Included in whats going on and receive social contact from others.
      • Equitable treatment: Treated the same as everyone else.
      • Social contact: Chance to be with others and prevent isolation and exclusion.
      • Autonomy:Should be able to make their own choices or be involved in the decision.
      • Occupation: Something interesting to focus on.
    • Causes
      • Additional chromosomeon the 21st pair
      • Genetics: as a result as an extra chromosome
      • extra chromosome comes from either mother or father, occurs at conception.
      • Mothers age is a contributory factor, due to increased risk overtime of damage to eggs.
    • Caring skills
      • Modelling: Shows correct behaviour in social situations.
      • Eye contact and facial expressions: Shows your interested in them and helps them to feel relaxed and reassured.
      • Working alongside: Helps to encourage them to get involved with others. doing a puzzle.
      • Creating trust: Nervous and anxious around others so makes them feel more comfortable and improve communication skills.
      • Showing approval: Helps to motivate them and progress.
      • Encouraging: When showing good behaviour like going to school due to bullies.
      • Communication: hard to communicate with others so if you communicate with them it makes them feel more relaxed.

Comments

Sam Morran

This is about Downs Syndrome not Autism but is an incredibly detailed resource that covers a multitude of areas connected with the disease.

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