The unification of Italy 1820-32

The Italian revolutions 1820-32

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 09-02-11 17:49

ITALIAN POLITICS IN 1815 (1)

What were the profiles, beleifs and actions of...

1. Liberals

2. Radicals

3. Nationalists

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ITALIAN POLITICS IN 1815

LIBERALS

  • Profile: non violent / middle class
  • Beliefs: people had a right to some say in goverment / favoured consistutional monarchy
  • Actions: law that guaranteed certain rights / fair trail / free speech

RADICALS

  • Profile: some members of secert socitities / university students
  • Beliefs: political powere should lie with people not parliament / social reforms and fair distrubution of wealth
  • Actions: violent methods / protests

NATIONALISTS

  • Beliefs: people of same race, language, culture should be united in an independant nation
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ITALIAN POLITICS IN 1815 (2)

Give a defintion to the following...

1. Absoloute Monarchy

2. Republican Monarchy

3. Consitiutional Monarchy

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ITALIAN POLITICS IN 1815

Absolute Monarchy - A political system under which a monarch rules without a consistution that limits his powers and without a parliament whose agreement is needed for the making of laws

Republican Monarchy - A system under which a elected goverment controls the affairs of a state, and in which there is no monarch even as a figurehead

Constitutional Monarchy - A system under which a king is bound by a certain agreed restrictions on his power set out in a written document (the constitution)

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ITALIAN POLITICS IN 1815 - SECRET SOCIETIES (3)

Who did the secret societies attract?

A weakness of the socieities was?

Name a famous secret society? (hint: charcoal burners)

Mention some facts about the societiy

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ITALIAN POLITICS IN 1815 - SECRET SOCIETIES

  • Secret socities mainly attracted well educated middle class
  • 
  • A weakness of the societies was their unwillingness to work together and lack of organisation
  • The Carbonari was a famous secret society
  • They were particulary active in Southern Italy
  • Around 60,000 members
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REVOLUTIONS 1820-21 - Naples (4)

Why?

What were the successes?

What were the failures?

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REVOLUTIONS 1820-21 - Naples

Why:

  • King Ferdiand increased churches power
  • Censoring books / newspapers / magazines - angered middle class
  • Ferdinand was short of money so cut back on public spending

Success:

  • Carbonari and Liberals in Naples encouraged to take action - it gained mass support
  • The attempt by the goverment troops to round up the rebels was very half hearted
  • July King Ferdinand agreed to grant consitiution
  • A new goverment was appointed

Failures:

  • Ferdinand declared he had been forced to grant consitiution out of fear and aked Austria to help him restore absolute power - Metternich delighted to intervene
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REVOLUTIONS 1820-21 - Sicily (5)

Why?

What were the successes?

What were the failures?

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REVOLUTIONS 1820-21 - Sicily

Why:

  • People determined to fight for independence from Naples
  • Ferdinands goverment neglecting islands needs
  • Agricultural prices had fallen sharply

Successes:

  • Demands for consitiution
  • Neopolitan governor sent home by boat

Failures:

  • Didn't get support form Naples revolutionaries
  • Naples regained control over Sicily
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REVOLUTIONS 1820-21 - Piedmont (6)

Why?

What were the successses?

What were the failures?

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REVOLUTIONS 1820-21 - Piedmont

Why:

  • The King, Victor Emmanuel I, persued very reactionary policy

Successes:

  • A revolutionary goverment was established in the town of Alessandria, and proclaimed their independence as the 'Kingdom of Italy' and declared war on Austria
  • Army mutiny in Turin encouraged VEI to abdicate
  • Liberals turned to the leadership of Charles Albert who appointed new gov.

Failures:

  • Charles was no the legitimate ruler. Therfore Charles Felix issued statement denouncing Charles Albert as a rebel and refused to except any change in goverment
  • Charles Albert took flight and left Liberals to defend constitution
  • Felix appealed to Metternich for aid
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REVOLUTIONARIES OF 1831-2 - Modena and Parma

Why?

What were the successes?

What were the failures?

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REVOLUTIONS 1831-2 - Modena and Parma

Why:

  • Revolt led by Enrico Misely who had plans for a united Italy
  • revealed plans to leader Duke Francis IV but trust was betrayed and he was arrested in February 1831

Succsees:

  • Whilst the Duke went to Vienna for Austrian help, revolutionaries took up the city Modena and set up a provisional gov.
  • This encoraged students in Parma to organise riots and demand constitution from their ruler who fled - a provisional gov. was established
  • Contact with revoloutionaries in Modena was made and a joint army was appointed

Failures:

  • Revolutionaires had little time to organise before Duke Francis returned to Modena with an Austrian army - defeated the Revolutionaires
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REVOLUTIONS 1820-32 - Failures (7)

Mention a few failures of the 1820-32 Revolutions

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REVOLUTIONS 1820-32 - Failures

  • Piedmont, Naples and Papal states reactionary goverments strengthened with help of Austria and military force
  • Success was only temporary
  • Failure to take united action
  • Little communication between revolutionaires in the different states
  • Revolutionaires were not co-ordinated
  • Popular interest and support not encouraged by revolutionary leaders
  • Revolutionaries were divided among themselves, lacked mass support and outside help
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