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How united was Italy by 1860?

To a large extent, Italy was not united by 1760


There is no integration of all state uniting as one

Parochialism: people owe their royalty to their locality and thus, although Piedmont have
shown herself as the only state suitable to lead…

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plebiscite won easily > 500,000 for and 750 against infavor of Modena parma...


Garibaldi silicy and naples vote for Piedmont annexation

Wasn't unite :

geographically : rome ­ need FR approval to remove the army and Venetia ­ mean war with

Aspromonte failed .…

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War of 1859 Secret agreement made in Jan between N3 and Cavour
19 April Austria issued ultimatum

4 June Magenta/ 24 June Solferino
Truce 11 July 1859 (without Cavour's approval)

During the war Cavour had instigated rebellions/uprisings in central duchies ­ Grand Duke of Florence
(Tuscany) fled ­ upper…

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G crossed to the mainland ­ Francis II abandoned Naples on 6 September ­ G became Dictator of
Kingdom of Naples.
Cavour worried about an attack on Rome ­ 12 September Cavour informed European powers that
Piedmont had to intervene in Papal states to restore order.
By 1 October P…

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adherents in Lombardy and Tuscany. These men were optimistic, liberal, and anxious for
peaceful change. Or, to put it another way, the `Mazzinian' revolutionaries had become
discredited, and the Piedmontese `moderates' were upstaging them by developing national
political programmes.

By the 1840s there was a `moderate' political grouping, with royal…

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The creation of Italy in 1861, which was not planned, is an example of the law of unintended consequences.

The British and the Risorgimento

Was Britain's reputation as the champion of Italian independence really warranted? Giuseppe
Garibaldi was undoubtedly popular with Britons, but Peter Clements is sceptical.

When Garibaldi was…

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to committees of investigation in both Houses of Parliament. Greatly embarrassed by the affair, the Prime Minister was
clearly lying when he asserted that the contents of Mazzini's mail had not been passed on to the Austrians. Even if the
information did not directly lead to any executions, this was…

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Garibaldi and the British
Garibaldi's invasion of Sicily and Naples in 1860 captured the imagination of the British in a way that no other Italian
exploits had. Already, from the time of his defence of the Roman republic in 1848, Garibaldi had been feted as a hero in
Britain. He…

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Civil War and a resurgence of interest in political reform. Garibaldi, however, disappointed many who had hoped he might
offer some support to British radicals: he stated that England already had individual freedom, freedom of conscience and
freedom of speech ­ and presumably was not therefore in need of further…

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The National Society
By Martin Clark (p.69/70)

In 18556 a group of prominent exiles in Turin (led byGiorgio Pallavicio) and later by the
Sicilian JournalistGuiseppe La Farini formed the Italian National Society pledged to
the cause of Italian independence, to support Piedmont and Victor Emmanuel in that
Daniel Manin…


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