addition information on Italy unification


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How united was Italy by 1860?
To a large extent, Italy was not united by 1760
There is no integration of all state uniting as one
Parochialism: people owe their royalty to their locality and thus, although Piedmont have
shown herself as the only state suitable to lead the Italy confederation (if it was united),
sense of nationalism can still not be found.
YET: it was pretty much united when compare to 1815, or 1848.
One of the main factor that causes Italy to be more united in 1860s than before was due to Piedmont
modernization that allowed many state to see her as an indisputable leader of the Italian
confederation. Less opposition towards Piedmont meant that Piedmont can take action uniting Italy at
a faster rate whereas before (such as 1848), each state would fight their independence and separatism
opposing unification.
Examples : When Cavour was appointed minister of finance 1853 :
He abolish all duties on imported grains no protection on the southern Italian economy
create the impression that Piedmont see them as the same country > no need to
tariff as helping south economy = helping Italian economy
Another reason: Establishment of National society meant that revolutionaries leader are now acting not
only for the common cause, but for the common action essential factors if Italy was going to be
because the failure to united Italy in 1848 revolution are due to lack of coordination of revolutionary
Piedmont participation in Crimean war raise Italy question. show other sates that Piedmont are
serious in fighting for Italian cause. In 1857 when Daniel Manin call to unite with Piedmont have confirm
this fact.
Working with Daniel Manin in 1857 :
Prevent radical revolution occur can do more things easily
Can stir instability in times when he want to achieve his aim
PLOMBIERES AGREEMENT : Prove that Fr was supporting to Italy cause = foreign approval.
1859 Tuscany vote for Piedmont annexation
Under villafranca armistice, gained Lombardy, Br approval of Piedmont exapansion
Proposal to adopt non foreign intervention in Italy affairs > unite in terms that Italy fara dese to
determine her own future.

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Modena parma...
Garibaldi silicy and naples vote for Piedmont annexation
Wasn't unite :
geographically : rome ­ need FR approval to remove the army and Venetia ­ mean war with
Aspromonte failed .
Pope refuse to refer unification to italy but Piemontisation.
Unification didn't happen since, CA was force to embrace it against his will
Garibaldi uprising was aimed for independence and separatism NOT UNIFICATION but
situation got out of hand and so the outcome was unpredictable.…read more

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War of 1859 Secret agreement made in Jan between N3 and Cavour
19 April Austria issued ultimatum
4 June Magenta/ 24 June Solferino
Truce 11 July 1859 (without Cavour's approval)
During the war Cavour had instigated rebellions/uprisings in central duchies ­ Grand Duke of Florence
(Tuscany) fled ­ upper class group took over.
Parma and Modena had uprisings ­ all 3 had Piedmontese officials and soldiers move in.
Romagna ­ revolution encouraged by Cavour's agents.…read more

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G crossed to the mainland ­ Francis II abandoned Naples on 6 September ­ G became Dictator of
Kingdom of Naples.
Cavour worried about an attack on Rome ­ 12 September Cavour informed European powers that
Piedmont had to intervene in Papal states to restore order.
By 1 October P had taken over Papal States.…read more

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Lombardy and Tuscany. These men were optimistic, liberal, and anxious for
peaceful change. Or, to put it another way, the `Mazzinian' revolutionaries had become
discredited, and the Piedmontese `moderates' were upstaging them by developing national
political programmes.
By the 1840s there was a `moderate' political grouping, with royal support in Piedmont, which
was committed to political change and to rejecting Austrian rule.…read more

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The creation of Italy in 1861, which was not planned, is an example of the law of unintended consequences.
The British and the Risorgimento
Was Britain's reputation as the champion of Italian independence really warranted? Giuseppe
Garibaldi was undoubtedly popular with Britons, but Peter Clements is sceptical.
When Garibaldi was relaxing in Tennyson's garden during his visit to England in 1864, a wildlooking female suddenly
appeared. Taking her for a gypsy, he is alleged to have sent her on her way ironically with a biscuit.…read more

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Houses of Parliament. Greatly embarrassed by the affair, the Prime Minister was
clearly lying when he asserted that the contents of Mazzini's mail had not been passed on to the Austrians. Even if the
information did not directly lead to any executions, this was only because the Austrians already knew of' the plots Mazzini
referred to in his letters.
British Policy towards Unification
Official British policy towards Italian nationalism had been largely pragmatic.…read more

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Garibaldi and the British
Garibaldi's invasion of Sicily and Naples in 1860 captured the imagination of the British in a way that no other Italian
exploits had. Already, from the time of his defence of the Roman republic in 1848, Garibaldi had been feted as a hero in
Britain. He had received a hero's welcome in Newcastle in 1854 this was somewhat to his bemusement as he had in fact
arrived in the port as captain of the Commo3ore to collect a cargo of coal.…read more

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Civil War and a resurgence of interest in political reform. Garibaldi, however, disappointed many who had hoped he might
offer some support to British radicals: he stated that England already had individual freedom, freedom of conscience and
freedom of speech ­ and presumably was not therefore in need of further reform. He also disappointed many by his
acceptance, and apparent enjoyment, of the aristocratic society which had embraced him and 'neutralised' any problems he
could have caused in more radical company.…read more

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The National Society
By Martin Clark (p.69/70)
In 18556 a group of prominent exiles in Turin (led byGiorgio Pallavicio) and later by the
Sicilian JournalistGuiseppe La Farini formed the Italian National Society pledged to
the cause of Italian independence, to support Piedmont and Victor Emmanuel in that
Daniel Manin soon joined and brought with him many members.
Soon Guiseppe Garibaldi joined.
The society was small (never more than 2000 members) but it was full of writers and
journalists keeping antiAustrian sentiment alive.…read more


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