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The Unification of Italy.
Pre Napoleonic Italy.
1796 ­ Napoleon's Army overruns Italy, patchwork of states.
North. Piedmont, ruled by House of Savoy from (Turin Capital). 1720 Duke of Savoy acquired
Sardinia and became King. States known as `The Kingdom of Sardinia' until 19th century.
North. Lombardy ruled by Austrian Empire, supported by Austrian Army. Economically advanced,
population of 130,000.
North. Venetia, governed by constitution little change since Renaissance, dominated by local
aristocracy, large Austrian influence.
Central Duchies (Tuscany, Modena & Parma.…read more

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Most well educated men were part of these groups mostly middle class men, no peasants. Were
not strong groups as they did not work together.
The Carbonari ­ Most well-known society, mainly active in the south. 600,000 members.
A suppression was ordered but not successful.
They were not anti-Catholic, although they planned to overthrow social order, not committed
They had surprisingly mild aims.
The Revolutions of 1820 -1.
1818 King Ferdinand increases churches power to censor papers, books etc.…read more

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The Papal States.
Organised by professional classes opposed oppressive rule from the churches authorities.
Little resistance, provisional government set up in February 1831.
Metternich's troops move in defeated rebels.
Minor uprisings during 1831-32 supressed by violent undisciplined Austrian troops.
With Austrian military help reactionary government strengthened there hold.
Highlighted the weakness of leaders who ran for Austrian help. Lack of Italian military resources.
Result of French revolution made many rulers nervous of defeat.
Limited communication between revolutionaries meant less cooperation.…read more

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Success in Sicily.
King of Kingdom of Naples Ferdinand II offered better life for Sicilians by offering reforms.
This did not happen and outbreak of Cholera put Sicily in a desperate state.
January 1948 notices saying weapons would be handed out, authories arrested a few suspects.
Next day people flood to the streets to get their weapons.
Many peasants joined the revolts.
Neapolitan army begin shelling the city later joined by 5000 reinforcements.…read more

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Rioting lead to pope fleeing to Naples.
Government left behind announces reforms ­ abolish taxes on grinding corn, Public building work
for unemployed & holding constituente.
Election of the representatives organised by the council of state. Constituente met for first time
February 1849. Garibaldi was part of this.
Four days later constituente proclaimed end to temporal power and established the Roman
Mazzini's Roman Republic.
March Mazzini returns ­ elected as head of triumvirate, ruled city.…read more

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Joined Charles Alberts army and returned to study economics and politics.
Ascended - Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and the Navy, Minister of Finance, and then Prime
Minister in 1852.
He came to power with an expert knowledge of economics and finance but a limited understanding
of foreign affairs. He came into power with an ambiguous approach to Italian Unification.…read more

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Austria. Cavour appealed to the King to carry on with the war, but he refused and this led to the
resignation of Cavour in July 1859 only to return 9 months later - Jan 1860 due to vast extension of
Cavour Stops Garibaldi
Italia fara da se' Italy will make herself by herself - cavour knew his was impossible and outside hekp
was needed to drive out the Austrians.…read more

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Cavour believed that Garibaldi would be unsuccessful and therefore refused to grant him arms and
However Cavour allowed it as if the expedition failed, he would be rid of a 'troublesome fellow'
Reached Marsala on 11 May - his two steamers landed at the harbour alongside a detachment of
the british army which led the local commander to believe Garibaldi was under British protection
and they were therefore not attacked.…read more

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French took him on as General of the Vosges army and he led uncordinated soldiers in Prussian
defeats in three small battles.
He returned to his home in Caprera and died in 1882 at the age of 75.
He was overall a flamboyant person with a strong personality - a good commander/guerrilla fighter
who inspired many with his enthusiasm.
However his relaxed leadership and lack of discipline is probably the main cause behind the high
level of desertions beneath him.…read more


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