STUARTS: Charles I parliaments

1625 parliament

  • Charles needed £1 million from parliament to fund war with spain, HOC granted him 2 subisides and tonnage & Poundage for 1 year ( this limitation was seens as an attack on his prerogative) = keeps collecting it after 1 year
  • Phelips and Edward Coke ensured it was for one year as a an indirect attack on Buckingham because he was suppose to use this money for foreign policy and he failed as Lord Admiral
  • Charles Supported Arminian Cleric Richard Montague which was attcked by parliament = showed that he didn't care about parliaments views and approved of anti-calvinist sentiments
  • Charles refuses to make concessions or consult courts most influential supporters and didnt engae with leading figures in the commons
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1626 parliament

  • Buckingham removes his enemies- Bristol ( ambassador of Spain) found himself charged with treason because he knew that Charles promised concessions to catholics and bribed spanish courtiers in Madrid( 1623)
  • - Lord Keeper Williams an enemy of Buckingham's was dismissed and the Earl of Arundel arrested

=  the gap between the court and country was widened and everyone saw buckingham as the power behind the throne manipulating everything

  • Charles was desperate for money and attempted to raise a loan in the city of london which failed. The crowns credit with the city merchants was exhausted.
  • Laud persuaded Charles to introduce forced loans to finance his war efforts without parliamentary input
  • - Laud was Arminian and Charles wanted arminian support because they were obediant to his authority + The Lord Chief Justice crew was dismissed for refusing to state that the loan was legal and some refusers were arrested and imprisoned ( Five Knights case)
  • Charles'  dissolved parliam due to criticisms towards buckingham and Montague
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Five Knights Case

  • 1627
  • 5 men challenged charles' right to imprison them for not paying the forced loans
  • king pressured the judges and they reluctantly found in his favour
  • Charles also got Attorney General Heath to falsify legal record= imprison them without trial if they refused to pay the loan
  • The commons opposition to charles became bitter when they found this out
  • His attitude shows how he creates his own rules in order to live above the law
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Petition of Rights

  • 1628
  • response by Mps like Edward Coke who thought Charles couldnt rule by an unwritten constitution
  • Four points: forced loans are illegal, can't be imprisoned withoout just cause shown.soldiers shouldnt be billeted on private individuals against their will, martial law was illegal
  • 7th of June it was passed and Charles firstly didn't give royal assent but then he did = made parliament weary of trusting him
  • HOC voted for 2 remonstrances to the king:
  • They complained about the favourtism shown to Arminian over Calvinist Ministers and the excessive power of Buckingham & his failed foreign policy
  • also the continued collection of Tonnage and Poundage was against the Petition of Right
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Buckingham Assissination

  • August 1628 John Felton a angry unpaid soldier present at Ile De Rhe , killed Buckingham
  • There were bonfire celebrations across the country
  • Charles blamed parliament for their negative portrayl of Buckingham
  • Charles now drifted more towards his wife = anglo-french relations improved
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The Three Resolutions

  • John Eliot, Denzil Holles and Valentine were convinced that Charles was going to dissolve parliament
  • Just as the speaker was about to suspend parliament, the three held the speaker down and passed three resolutions

1) anyone bringing in Arminianism is an enemy to the country and king

2) anyone who advises the king to collect Tonnage and Poundage is an enemy

  • Charles dissolved parliament 2 days later
  • The men were arrested for treason
  • The next 11 years , he governed without parliament
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