The First Civil War, Part 1.
1642 - Outbreak of Civil War.
1643 - Solemn Leage and Covenant.
1644 - Battle at Marston Moore.
1645 - Creation of the New Model Army, the Battle of Naseby.
1646 - Charles I surrenders to the Scots.
- According to the historian, Farr "Charles's personality was the root of his problems."
- Charles was shy and hampered by his speech defect; causing him to be unapproachable and uncommunicative, especially in Parliament.
- Charles was also infexible and very stubborn; a classic Stuart monarch.
The First Civil War, Part 2
The Policies of War.
- His title meant he was in a naturally strong position in comparison to Parliament, however he was a poor war leader due to his personality.
- Charles called for military support through commisions of array, a fuedal call for troops from each county.
Reason for Royalist Failure during the Civil War.
- Charles was a poor war leader and appointed himself commander in chief, he was also indecisive.
- Charles failed to take advantage of the early strength of his potition.
- Charles instated inexperienced generals (prince rupert and maurice).
- He relied on foreign aid from France and his nephew princes.
- There were divisions within Royalist councils due to different views put forward by Charles catholic wife and Edward Hyde.
- Parliamentary strengths.
The Failure to Reach Settlement. Part 1
1646 - Newcastle Propositions
1647 - Army's Heads of Proposals, Putney Debates, The Engagement..
1658 - Second Civil War, Battle of Preston. Remonstrance of the Army, Pride's Purge.
1649 - Trial and Excecution of Charles I.
- His intransagence meant he refused to agree to any petitions Parliament offered him, even the conservative 'Newcastle Propositions'.
- During attempts to reach settlement through the newport treaty at the Isle of Wight, Charles sent secret letters to Island telling them to disregard everything he agreed to during this attempt at settlement.
- He bought time by attempting to play the two division within Parliament (the 'peace' and 'war' parties) against one another.
The Trial of Charles I
"That the said Charles Stuart, being admitted King of England, and therein trusted with a limited power to govern by and according to the laws of this land and not otherwise; and by his trust, oath, and office, being obliged to use the power committed to him for the good and benefit of the people, and for the preservation their rights and liberties yet nevertheless, out of a wicked design to erect and uphold in himself and unlimited and Tyrannical power to rule according to his will, and to overthrow the rights and liberties of the people."
- The Court was highly biased and full of Independents, even so, only a fraction of those who sentenced Charles I to death signed the death warrant and became regicides.
- The first to sign the death warrant was the judge, John Bradshaw who wore a bullet proof hat during the trial.
- Charles refused to speak during the trial, saying the court and trial had no legal power, however when he was found guilty he wanted to speak; Bradshaw refused to allow it and had him removed.
Fun fact: On the cold day of the kings excecution, Charles wore two shirts so he wouldn't shivver, which he knew his enemies would claim would be due to fear.