Republican Divisions 1658-60

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Civilian Cromwellians (presbyterians)

they wanted a settlement such as the Humble Petition but OC's decline of the crown was a problem for some e.g. Broghill

other civilian cromwellians wanted a more tradtional parliamentary settlement e.g. Thurloe and Henry Cromwell- this would include a reduction in the army's influence

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Republicans

they opposed the protectorate- because it included having one leader, their concerns were confirmed when the Humble petition was created 

they wanted a one chamber parliament e.g. the rump & also wanted to limit the army's influence

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Army Grandees

an army grandee is a person who is of a high rank in the army e.g. Fleetwood and Desborough (major-generals)

Lambert was still a key figure (despite his resignation in 1657), re-entered parliament as an MP in 1659- formed an alliance with the republicans

alliance with the republicans could be unstable because of the past- republicans opposed the instrument etc.

Lambert had links with Henry Vane 

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Monck

supported Charles I during the civil war, captured by Lambert- Cromwell persuaded him to use his talents for parliament 

was put in command of the scottish NMA- notably purged the army of all radicals (quakers)

he had the scottish army at his disposal

though loyal to R.Cromwell, Monck established links with Charles Stuart because of his concern of the army grandees (especially Lambert) & the breakdown of order

his and his army's intervention into politics in 1659 was crucial in bringing about the restoration

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Soldiers (junior officers)

resurfaced concers because of their arrears (money owed to them by parliament) & army grandees not having their interests in mind 

their feeling of distrusts stemmed from the belief that the army grandees were trying to take control of the army (this was played on by republicans)

willing to work with the republicans- determined to have a say

led by Lilburne, their greivances were put before Richard Cromwell in 1659

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Quakers

they were significant to the restoration because of the reaction they provoked from conservatives such as Monck- conservatives saw the Quakers as undermining social, economic and political order 

the only way to get that stability back in many conservatives eyes was by restoring the monarchy 

most numerous radical group, reaching 60,000 members

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Charles Stuart

immediately after OC's death, Charles had little significance because Richard took over and his protectorate seemed viable 

Charles could do little to aid his return and therefore restoration seemed unlikely 

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