The Restoration Settlement, 1660-64

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  • Created on: 12-04-20 19:54
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  • The Restoration Settlement, 1660-64
    • The Declaration of Breda, 1660
      • Before Charles refered to England, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda.
      • He promised:
        • He would listen to the advice of Parliament.
        • An indemnity
          • People would not be persecuted for the actions they took during the civil wars.
            • However, thus excluded those who took part in the execution of Charles I or who resisted the king's return.
            • The details of this were to be settled by Parliament.
        • 'liberty to tender consciences'
          • Toleration for peaceful religious beliefs, the details of which were to be settled by Parliament.
        • Settlement of disputes over land would be decided by Parliament.
        • Payment of the army's wages.
    • The Search for Stability, 1660
      • Charles II and the Convention Parliament attempted to ensure political stability in 1660:
        • The Act of Indemnity and Oblivion granted a general pardon to supporters of the Republican regimes.
          • However, this didn't include those who had condemned Charles I to death.
        • Land confiscated during the republican period was restored to its original owners.
        • The Convention oversaw the peaceful disbanding of the New Model Army.
        • The Anglican Church was restored, along with the bishops.
    • The Religious Settlement, 1661-64
      • He promised religious toleration.
        • However, the ultra-royalist Cavalier Parliament was determined to restore the Anglican Church and persecute non-conformists.
      • Timeline:
        • 1661; The Corporation Act allowed only Anglicans to hold office in local corporations.
          • Many corporations were Puritan strongholds, and the Act severly weakened Puritain power and influence.
        • 1662; The Quacker Act imposed severe financial penalties on Quakers.
        • 1662; The Act of Uniformity required all clergymen to accept Anglican doctrines and rituals.
          • Thus, hundreds of parish priests were driven from their livings.
        • 1664; The Conventicle Act forbade dissenting assemlies of more than 5 people.
      • During his reign, Charles tried to change some of the harsher parts of the settlement, but this only led to conflict between monarch and Parliament
    • The Settlement of Government and Finance, 1660-64
      • Parliament used finance to limit Charles (their biggest source of power).
      • On the surface, Charles was given a generous settlement of £1.2 million a year and a new Hearth Tax.
        • This was a tax on every fireplace and stove (introduced 1662).
        • While this was a better position than the previous Stuart monarchs, it wasn't enough to make him independant.
          • Therefore, Charles was reliant on further Parliamentary finance, for which he would need the consent of MPs.
      • In 1664, the Cavalier Parliament replaced the Triennial Act of 1641 with a much weaker version.
        • The new Act did not establish a procedure to be followed if the king falied to call a Parliament.


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