Emergence and evolution of modern sport

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Sport in pre-industrial Britain

Mob football:

  • Mass game played between villages due to limited transport and communications.
  • Localised, simple rules due to illiteracy so played by lower class males.
  • Occasional due to lack of free time (seasonal free time).

**** fighting:

  • Wagering involved as it was generally an upper class sport (could show off wealth).
  • Lower class could participate by 'throwing at *****', typically a shrove tuesday activity.

Social class influences in pre-industrial Britain:

  • Upper class- aristocracy or gentry who were hereditary landowners.
  • Lower/peasant class- peasants who worked manually, mainly on the land.
  • Activities for peasants were often violent/few rules- mob football and dog fighting.
  • Activities for upper class had more complex rules, had the money, education and transport to help them develop activities like real tennis and fox hunting.
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Sport in pre-industrial Britain

  • Activities for both classes- pedestrianism whereby upper class would be the sponsors for lower-class participants (running footmen would be wagered on by aristocrats).
  • Cricket associated with public houses, both classes participated with gentlemen (gentry amateurs) and players (lower class professionals). Upper-class didn't need the money.

Gender:

  • Woman seen as the 'weaker' sex so activities couldn't be too strenuous or dangerous.
  • Peasant women had few rights and had few choice of activities acceptable for them.
  • Peasant women could 'smock race' at county fairs.
  • Upper-class women could do activities like archery.

Law and order:

  • Very little formal law and order enforced.
  • Peasant classes involved in violent activities (animal baiting)= lack of law and order and cruelty to animals in blood sports.
  • Mob football had few rules= reflected lack of law and order.
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Sport in pre-industrial Britain

Education and literacy:

  • Upper-classes were educated and literate whereas peasants were mostly uneducated/illiterate.
  • Upper-classes who could read/write could understand more sophisticated activities like real tennis whereas peasants did simple/unsophisticated activities with few rules like mob football.

Availabiltiy of time:

  • Lower-class peasants worked long/exhausting hours labouring on the land (little energy for physical activities).
  • Agricultural work was dictated by seasons so no set leisure/free time for the workers.
  • So activities were confined to festivals/holy day fairs (bare-knuckled fighting, throwing contest).
  • The shortage of transport meant their activities had to be short-lasting and localised.
  • Upper class had more time so could do longer-lasting activities like fox hunting.
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Sport in pre-industrial Britain

Availability of money:

  • Upper class had more time and money so had more opportunities for involvement.
  • Could afford clothing and equipment so could do activities like real/royal tennis.
  • Activities played by upper class were exclusive as they had the land, money and time.

Type and availability of transport:

  • Mainly horse and cart, most walked as the roads were in bad condition.
  • Therefore activites were localised so had simple, unwritten rules.
  • Upper classes had more opportunities as they could travel by horse and carriage.
  • Gentry could access real tennis courts and aristocracy could build courts within their estates.
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Sport in post-1850 industrial Britain

Social class:

  • Middle class emerged- professionals, factory owners and managers (not born into aristocracy).
  • Middle classes had increasingly more time and money to be involved in sports.
  • Many middle classes went to public schools and influenced NGB's of rugby/football, helped with the development of sport.

Amateurism and professionalism:

  • Amateur's: not payed as they played for the sake of the game, suited upper/middle classes.
  • Professionals: played for money so more overtly competitive, suited lower classes.
  • In cricket, both on the same time but used different changing rooms.
  • Growth of socially mixed Northern teams in football/rugby led to broken-time payments which were against amateur principles of not playing for monetary gain, split into league and union.
  • Professionals in association football had occupations like industrialists, got broken-time payments (did work then had training but were still paid like the other workers).
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Sport in post-1850 industrial Britain

Gender and the changing status of women:

  • Women expected to marry, procreate and be financially dependent on husbands so many looked at education as pointless.
  • Most professions refused female entry; could become teachers but with low wages and status.
  • During late 19th century, their role started to change- marriage expectation compromised as there was less men due to their high mortality rate, going to war or emigrating.
  • Women eventually got the vote (1918) after suffragete movement/campaigns.

Law and order:

  • More refined laws and sense of order affected activities of the working class.
  • Decline in blood sports (animal baiting/**** fighting) due to changes in law.
  • Upper classes still had fox hunting as the law makers were the middle/upper classes.
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Sport in post-1850 industrial Britain

Education and literacy:

  • Upper class had little interest in cultural development of the working classes.
  • Effects of the revolutions in EU reinforced the need to control the masses= less educated.
  • Most working class didn't want education, child labour was common practice and working-class families didn't want to give up their child's earnings for education.
  • More sophisticated sports requiring cognitive processing/understanding of rules= upper/middle.
  • Lower classes associated with public house activites and wagering on horses= rags to riches.
  • Education Act 1870= national system of education.
  • Act established elementary schools; more accessible to lower classes so the understanding of sophisticated rules in sport was more widespread and more people got involved in sport.

Availability of time and money:

  • Factory owners encouraged the formation of works teams to keep they healthy and loyal.
  • Leisure time increased but working class still struggled due to lack of disposable income.
  • Growth of factories/machinery meant that hours were long and pay was poor.
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Sport in post-1850 industrial Britain

  • 72 hour week (little time and energy).
  • Saturday half-day enabled sport to occur but workers were still too tired to due their conditions.
  • Factory owners encouraged development of sports clubs.
  • Large factory owners developed 'seaside holiday'; paid excursion for the workers.
  • By the end of the 20th century, 37-40 hour week was typical; could do more sport.

Type and availability of transport:

  • Before 20th century it was mainly restricted to walking and horseback.
  • The development of roads, bikes, railways and eventually the car that enabled good communication and travel.
  • Railways helped develop seaside resorts and allowed away fixtures (spectators could travel).
  • Mass production of cars in 20th century; sport is easily followed and participation is easier.
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Sport in post-1850 industrial Britain

Influence of public schools:

  • Public schools were influential in developing rules and NBG's of sports activities.
  • Initally only exclusive to upper class males; travel and tuition fees.
  • At the start of the 19th century, organised sport wasnt a feature in public schools; headmasters weren't in favour of sports (became important mid-19th century).
  • Early 19th century= prefect fagging system (parents angered so schools had to act).
  • Thomas Arnold (head at Rugby) promoted regular sports and developed house system which helped form competitive sports teams, instigated prefects who organised sports.
  • Development of interhouse/interschool fixtures.
  • His idea of muscular christianity= linked sport to being a moral Christain gentleman.
  • Athleticism= combination of physical endevour and moral integrity.
  • Pupils took their school games to Uni; need for a common set of rules.
  • FA formed in 1863 using Cambridge rules.
  • Ex-pupils came back to build sports facilities, become masters, create NGB's.
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How social factors shaped sport in the 20th centur

  • Considerable growth of cities (urbanisation).
  • More time for leisure, less time spent on work therefore more participated in sport.

Class, gender and law and order:

  • Spectators now had to pay to spectate; able to travel widely around the country to attend sporting events that were now held on Saturdays, not festival days.
  • Some players had to wear numbers on their back, boxers wore gloves, fixed n.o of players.
  • Pub= centre of sports for working-class men, sport still took place in a drinking environment.
  • Participation of women had fallen drastically in 1900, particularly working class women.
  • Professionals in rugby, football and cricket; cup/league competitions involved town rivalries.
  • Development of the sports press; sports became more globalised.
  • Gambling still prevalent to sport; upper/middle class gambled and lower classes took part.
  • Clubs could pay players as people spectated aswell as played; spectators charged.
  • Sport helped maintain troop morale in WW1; sport a symbol of orderliness of working class.
  • Crowds at soccer/rugby= male dominated, mostly working class.
  • Professional sport watched by skilled workers; unemployed/working class couldn't afford it.
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How social factors shaped sport in the 20th centur

Education:

  • Education act 1944 states that the individuals needs aren't just academic, education should apply to spiritual, mental and physical developments of the whole community.
  • Same principle was reiterated in the Education Reform act 1988, stated the need for a broadly based curriculum which promotes spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development.
  • Before the introduction of comprehensive schools in 1965, there were grammar schools, secondary modern and secondary technical schools.
  • Part of all school curriculum was PE.
  • Grammar schools (like public) ran competitive sports teams in major sports.
  • Secondary modern schools also ran a range of sports teams.
  • Sport was promoted through extra-curricular provision in all schools.

Availability of time, money and place for sport.

  • Gradual increase in leisure time/money; men played as well as watched.
  • Availability of money a key factor, available land was heavily used (space at a premium).
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How social factors shaped sport in the 20th centur

Transport:

  • Both public and private transport became more available; enabled increase in spectators and participators in sport (sport now more accessible).
  • Late 1940s, sport encouraged as a spectacle by growing radio coverage.
  • 1948 London Olympics drew huge crowds; huge profit (rejuvenate tourism and economy).
  • International competitions (olympics) used more as a 'shop window' for host city/country.
  • International transportation enabled sport to become more global.
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Sport in the 21st century

Class:

  • More divisions within middle and working classes however class is less pronounced.
  • Often participants in football are mostly unskilled, uemployed males from working-class backgrounds who turn professional for the prospect of fame/fortune.
  • Social mobility can be achieved through sports= no longer in poverty (media promote this).
  • Rugby league in the North of England is an example of going from rags to riches.
  • Sports like golf, tennis still associated with upper/middle class due to expense.
  • Rate of participation of 16+ is greater amongst higher socio-economic groups.
  • The formation of the Premier League in 1992 drew participants/spectators from across classes.
  • Premier league in the 21st century is marketed as elite as seat prices have risen.
  • Social class is a factor for being an amateur or professional.
  • Amateurs in sports like cricket/rugby are traditionally associated with middle classes.
  • Professionals in sports like football are largely working class.
  • Rugby now has a broad scope of professionals from middle and working-class backgrounds.
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Sport in the 21st century

Gender:

  • More men involved in sport (participating or spectating).
  • Can be seen as 'masculine' or unfemine, reinforcing male dominance in sport/sport coverage.
  • Certain sports linked to males/females which can lead to discrimination (e.g. dance is for girls).
  • Women more involved in physical exercise; more interest in health and fitness activities (gym).
  • Participation rates for women footballers/rugby players is increasingly growing.
  • Increase in female sports presenters; encourages more women to participate and become role models as there's fewer instances of open discrimination.

Law and order:

  • Legislation for sport is sophisticated/more specific to sport (e.g. negligence for high-physical contact sports has seen alot of high-profile cases).
  • Rights of players/spectators more enshrined in law as well as laws related to aggression (law increasingly used to protect/litigate against officials and referees).
  • Litigation over injuries suffered in a sporting context is a recent development.
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Sport in the 21st century

  • Football banning orders used to prevent hooligans from travelling to fixtures abroad.
  • Law involved in the misuse of drugs, misconduct on and off the field and 'match fixing'.
  • Laws to prevent discrimination based on race/gender impacts on participants.
  • Golf clubs/private members establishments no longer able to discriminate over the grounds of gender under the 2010 Equality laws (some golf clubs gave females limited access to facilities).
  • Discrimination legislation in UK covers: race, gender, disability, age, sex and religion.

Education:

  • 5-11= primary then secondary school, normally means entry into a comprehensive school.
  • Amongst comprehensive there's also voluntary denominational like Roman Catholic schools.
  • There's also middle/secondary modern/secondary grammar/technical schools as well as private school.
  • Exams/qualifications in PE and sport have increased; increase in opportunity for young people to study PE and sport.
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Sport in the 21st century

Availabilty of time, money and transport:

  • Technological innovations; growing availability of time, more flexible working conditions results in more participation in sport.
  • However, global recession affected people's disposable income (for most vulnerable); less money spent on sports and exercise by many, e.g. can't afford tickets, gym memberships.
  • UK has higher participation rates than the EU, UK at 48.5 and EU at 41%.
  • Availability of transport increased; most households own a car so participants and spectators are likely to travel by car, bus or rail to engage in sports activities.
  • Increase in availability of cheap air fares= more travel abroad to compete/spectate in sport.

Globalisation of sport:

  • Process that involves sport as worldwide business; international sport has massive investment involved as well as the rep of countires and international companies.
  • Organisations such as FIFA can have their reputations tarnished with alleged cheating.
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Sport in the 21st century

Freedom of movement and greater exposure of people to sport:

  • Sport is now a global marketplace for players to showcase their skills (command high wages).
  • National/international laws enable this freedom of movement.
  • E.g. In athletics, some change their nationalities to compete for a certain country, NZ rugby players migrate to Britain.
  • Many spectators travel abroad to support their teams/watch international competitions.
  • Availability/affordability of air travel has made this more accessible= greater exposure to sport.
  • Possible reasons for globalisation of footballers: better/faster/cheaper transport, media raises awareness of potential players, global tours/competitions, financial incentives for club/player.

Media coverage:

  • TV companies now use sport comercially and through sponsorship.
  • Golden triangle= interdependence and influences of the 3 factors of sport, sponsorship + media (each aspect influences the other).
  • Commercial boost from TV came in 1990s with the development of satellite TV.
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Sport in the 21st century

  • Sky secured rights to televise football.
  • Players= main beneficiaries of globalisation of media; growth in wages/sponsorship.
  • Media increased amount of people watching televised sport; Super League formed and shown in summer when less team sport is on tv.
  • Media (including tv, internet, social media), show women still have less profile in sport.
  • Ethnic minorities still underrepresented in many sports; e.g. lack of professional football players from Asian community).
  • Little media attention for sporting inequalities based on class, gender or ethnicity.
  • Rules have been influenced by media as well as revised tv programming to meet needs of TV companies (have to televise it at 6pm which is not usual for the fans).
  • Olymic events scheduled at unsuitable times due to demand of TV companies who are televising it across different time zones.
  • Influence of TV has introduced TMO.
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