Elite Sport is the most talented sports people, only a few reach this standard of performance yet they require a substantial level of funding and resources.
Participation Pyramid - The wider the base of sport participation the more likely that athletes will progress to the apex. The more people at participationand foundation level the more likely elite athletes will emerge. Things like tradition, ideals and the popularity of the sportcan affect it's popularity and participation.
Elite Performers Qualities:
- Natural ability
- High level of fitness and health
- High pain threshold
- Preferred body type for particular type of sport
- High level of competitiveness
- Willingness to train
- Commitment and sacrifice
- Mental toughness
Talent Identification Programmes need to consider physiology, psychology, hereditary factors and sociological factors.
Organisations with a remit for sport
DCMS - Improve the quality of life for all through cultural and sporting activities, to support the pursuit of excellence and to champion the tourism, creative and leisure industries.
UK Sport - UK Sport will work in partnership to lead sport in the UK to world-class success.
Sport England - To get 2million people more active in sport by 2012, and to make sure that participation is maintained.
EIS - To provide world class services to athletes supported by world class performance programme, which requires a breadth of vision and clarity of purpose 'making the best better'.
Sports Coach UK - to adopt, practiseand promote values that reflect uniqure worth, encourage, look for improvement and result in an open honest culture.
BOA - To lead and prepare our nations finest athletes at the Olympic games, it has a responsibility for developing the Olympic movement throughout the UK.
National Lottery - Independently allocate grants.
Sports Aid - Raise funds to provide financial aid to Britain's amateur sports people.
Contract to Compete
'An unwritten mutual agreement to abide by the written and unwritten rules'
- Abide by the written and unwritten rules
- Always give 100% effort
- Allow opponents to demonstrate their skill
- Accept and understand the need for codes of behaviour like sportsmanship and etiquette
Sportsmanship - Qualities encouraged in sport such as fairness and especially the observance of the unwritten rules.
Etiquette - The conventional rules of behaviour embodied within a sporting situation.
Fai Play - Equitable conduct; just equal conditions operate for all involved in the sporting contest.
Gamesmanship - Bending the rules of the game to gain an advantage.
Amateurism, Athleticism, Olympism, Professionalism
Amateurism - Based on the ideal that participation in sport should be for the love of it rater than for the monetary gain.
Athleticism - Physical endeavour with moral integrity.
Olympism - A concept balancing the mind and body which encourages effort, educational values and ethical behaviour.
Professionalism - a sporting activity that is engaged in for financial gain or as a means of livelihood.
Commercialism and the Media
Commercialism - An emphasis on the principles of commerce with a focus on profit.
- It has made sport a global product advertised and marketed.
- The important issues are media rights, sponsorship deals and merchandising.
- The richest clubs buy the best players they can afford widening the gap between them and clubs with less financial backing.
Commercial Sport is:
- Professional sport
- A business
- Gate receipts
- Athletes as endorsements
- The media
- Winning and Success
Some sports have changed as a result to this and the rules have been altered to speed up the action and to make scoring more exciting. The competitive season has been extended and breaks are provided in play so that sponsors can advertise there products.
Negative Deviancy - can include violations like deliberatly fouling another playeror taking drugs.
Positive Deviancy - encouraged to behave in ways that would be unacceptable in other parts of life, eg when a performer is encouraged to over train.
Conflict - change or progress made by one group at the expense of another.
Hooliganism - a disorderly, violent young person ussually associated with the game of football.
Ergogenic aids - a substance that improves performance.
Sport and the Law
Sport Law is the application of legal principles to all levvels of competition of amateur and professional sport and to physical activity.
Cases can include:
- negligence in sport
- criminal assault on the sports field
- risk management and assessment
- event management, risk and insurance
- employment regulations
- marketing and sponsorship rights
- law of contract
- harassment in sport
- race relations
- sport and leisure disasters and the law
UK France USA - politics and sport
- Sport as a means of promoting nationalism. The olympics athletes represent their country, the anthems, flags and colours.
- Sport as a tool of politicalpropaganda. governments have used sport to impose a political belief through propaganda.
- Sport as a means of fostering or sustaining existing social conflict. Sport has been used to escalate political conflict like discrimination.
- Sport and thepolitical decisions made about it. Boycott of sports events, bidding for major sports events.
UK France USA - Economics
- Capitalism or a market economy - based on free trade and private ownership.
- Socialism - involves collective ownership of the means of production.
- Mixed Economy - combines a market economy with some centrally planned or state run enterprises.
UK France USA - Funding
- Direct government funding - funding is givenfor attendance of a sport institute ie INSEP, in the USA this funding is only available for olympic atheletes.
- Indirect government funding - in the UK this type of funding is from the national lottery.
- Scholarships - attendance at a university is funded on the basis of athletic ability, this is most common in the USA as elite athletes are brought through the school system in the UK theyemerge from clubs.
- Gate Receipts - the money taken for admission to an event this funds the athletic programme, there is no system like this in the UK and France.
- Private sources - these include businesses and sponsorship modern sports couldn't cope without this.
Funded Institutions -
- National Sport Institutes - EIS in the UK, in France it's the INSEP. these hav high-class facilities which are used to develop elite athletes.
- Clubs - these are sometimes attached to the institutes.
- Sports Schools - tend to be for children and can be fee-paying or have scholarships.
- Schools - some have sports sections attached to them. UK have specialist sports colleges, France have sport study programme in the USA school is where elite athletes emerge
Education in UK France and USA
UK - Schools aren't the base of elite sport, competitive school sport is extra-cirricular and is based on good will. Limitations like funding, poor school-club links and lack of specialist coaches has effected how many children are accessing excellent sports facilities.
USA - Decentralised (each state run their own), PE is losing it's status to Inter-scholastic sport. Development of elite athletes comes through school, a sports coach is the member of the school faculty.
France - Similar to the UK, but similarly to the UK they prioritise sport more than PEand they have strong school-club links.
UK France and USA - Professional sport and Commerc
The Lombardian ethic and material rewards are the main influence of American sport. Sports are run as businesses and athletes are marketed as assets.
Sport as a Business
- Aim to make a lot of money.
- Pay salaries/sign contracts/have overheads.
- Advertise products.
- Sell merchandise.
- Have owners and employees
- Make investments.
Athletes as assets
- Are expendable.
- Are ambassadors of the company and act as role models.
- Are salaried.
- Can be transferred/sold.
- Must endorse products.
- Must generate funds.
Gender Ethnicity and Social Class
Gender - Women have experienced similar gender inequality in all 3 countries.
Ethnicity - in all 3 countries the most esstablished group were white groups.
Social Class - in the UK and France the dominant group were middle and upper class with lower classes being the players. in the USA the divide was not so acute and working classes had to wait for facilities and the right to recreation.
- Selection process
- Political Issues
- Benefits to host city
- Positive values
- Top facilities
The Six Goals of the Olympics are 1. personal excellence, 2. sport as eductaion, 3. cultural exchange, 4. mass participation, 5. fair play, 6. international understanding.