- Created by: niamhking08
- Created on: 06-02-20 09:29
Social Class: Social Groups
- There are stil social divisions withun our society:
- Group 1 (A): Higher professional and managerial workers.
- Group 2 (B): Lower managerial and professional workers.
- Group 3 (C1 & C2): Intermediate occupations.
- Group 4 (C1 & C2): Small employers, non-professional and self-employed.
- Group 5 (C1 & C2): Lower supervisory and techincal.
- Group 6 (D): Semi-routine occupations.
- Group 7 (D): Routine occupations.
- Group 8 (E): Long-term unemployed.
- Professional footballers are mostly unskilled, unemployed males from working-class backgrounds, longing for fame and fortune.
- Sports such as rugby union in S.Wales and rugby league in N.England are examples of how fame and fortune can become real for working men of those areas.
- Tennis has traditionally been associated with the middle-class but professional players represent a range of social class positions.
- Social Mobility can be acheived through sport, which results in a rekease from poverty.
- The media promote this view and this creates role models for young people to look up to.
- Key Term - Social Mobility: the changes in wealth, education and occupation over a person's lifetime.
Social Class: Evaluation of Social Class and Socio
- Sport is still associated with those perceived to be of a certain social class. However, 'social class' has developed since the early 20th century.
- Sports such as football (traditionally played by those from a working-class background) are now much more mixed.
- Sports such as polo, tennis and golf are associated with the upper/middle class due to expense.
- Elite Olympic sport has a dispropotianate number of privatley educated so therefore more middle-class athletes.
- The rate of participation of people aged 16 and over is greater among people form higher socio-economic groups than those from lower ones.
- A Sport England survey from 2015 found that 38.7% of people participated in sport from the higher socio-economic groups, compared to 25.7% from manual and unemployed socio-economic.
- Socio-Economic: Relating to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors. Economic circumstances can affect social experiences and vice versa.
- Seating in football stadiums was introduced following the Hillsborough distaster of 1989.
- The Premier League has been marketed into the 21st century and as a result seat prices have risen sharply.
- The middle classes are now much more likely to state that they are a football fans and more affluent older supporters are now much more prevalent as football fans.
Social Class: Social Class and Sport
- Social class is also a factor in whether someone is likely to be an amateur or a profesional in sport.
- However, this depends on the type of sport.
- Amateurs in sports such as cricket and rugby have been traditionally associated with the middle classes.
- Professionals in an activity such as football have been largely working class.
- However, rugby now consists of a broad representation of professional players from middle class and working class backgrounds.
Gender: Participation Levels
- There is still a difference in the participation levels between men and women in sport.
- Far more men get involved in sport, either to participate or to spectate.
- It is stilll regarded that being good or interested in sport is 'unfeminine'; therefore reinforcing male dominance in sport.
- Certain activities are traditionally linked to either men or women and this can lead to discrimination e.g. dance is more feminine.
- More women than ever are now involved in exercise, with a lot of interest in health and fitness activities.
- The participation levels for women involved in sports such as football and rugby are now much larger.
- There is also an increase in female sports presenters in the media. This may encourage more women to be interested and become role models in sport.
- More women presenters in sport but there is a debate about why they are chosen.
- A committe member from the House of Commons stated: 'It is coincidental that the majority of female presenters are all young, attractive, with one or two exceptions?'
- Maybe the media are mirroring the sports industry as a whole, with only a minority of women involved and discrimination frequent, despite there are more female presenters than perfromers.
Law and Order
- In the 21st century, legislation that affects sport is sophisticated and more specific to sport.
- The rights of spectators and their safety are also now more protected in law, as well as law related to agression of players on and off the pitch.
- The law has been used increasingly to protect or to go against officials and referees.
- However, in recent years new categories of potential defendants have started to emerge in actions for sports injuries e.g. the extent of responsibility of a match official with regards to safety.
- This was introduced following 2 cases of rugby players who have suffered from severe spinal injuries as a result of the referees failure to exert control over a highly techinical area of the game.
- Football banning orders have been used in the 21st century to stop football fans who are potential troublemakers from travelling abroad (football hooligans).
- The law has also been involved in the misuse of drugs, misconduct on and off the pitch and match fixing (a form of gambling).
- The increase in legislation may be a sign of a growth of lawlessness of sport, but may be more becuase people are more aware of their legal rights.
Law and Order: Discrimination
- Laws to prevent discrimination against race and gender have also had an impact on those who participate in sport.
- For example, the rights of transsexuals are protected (Gender Recognition Act of 2004).
- Golf clubs and other private members' establishments are no longer able to discriminate gender under the 2010 Equality laws.
- Discrimination legislation in the UK covers 6 categories:
- Sexual Orientation
- Ages 5-11: Children attend primary school.
- Ages 11- 17: Attend secondary schools, which normally means entry into a comprehensive school.
- Among comprehensive schools, there are also schools including Roman Catholic schools.
- The comprehensive school is: intended to provide all the secondary eduaction of all the children in a given area.
- In England, 86.8% of pupils attend comprehensive schools.
- There are other types:
- 5.2% attend middle schools.
- 2.6% attend secondary modern schools.
- 4.2% attend secondary grammars.
- 0.1% attend techinical schools.
- More than a third of medal winners at the 2012 olympics were educated at private schools, which educate 7% of the school population.
- Pupils sit their GCSE examinations in secondary schools.
- The exams are marked by an independent body.
- Students also sit there A Levels; access to university's is based on the number of exams taken and the grade acheived.
- Exams and qualifications in sport and PE, including sports science have increased in the 21st century.
- There are A Levels, AS Levels, GCSE's, BTEC's, Cambridge Nationals and Cambridge Technical qualifications.
- This gives an increase in opportunity for young people to study PE and sport.
- At university, there are degrees dedicated to sport, such as sports science, sport psychology, coaching and sports therapy.
Availibility of Time
- The 21st century has become much more technological, with most people better off than the early 20th century.
- The growing availibility of time due to technological advances and more flexible working hours and working conditions results in more participation in sport.
- Numbers particiapting regularly in sport is down since 2012, by 125,000 to 15.6 million, while 121,700 fewer disabled people play sport regularly (2015).
Availability of Money
· The global recession has affected most people's disposable income and the most vulnerable in sociery have struggled the most.
· This has lead to less money being spent on sports.
· E.g. those who were regular football spectators ae unable to afford the cost of match tickets.
· Gym membership has increased in the 21st century due to it being more affordable.
· Participation rates in the UK, are 7.5% above Europe. However, figures are significantly below the countries with the highest levels e.g. 70% in Sweden.
· Swimming, golf, and equestrian have all decreased in participation.
· However, athletics, cycling and netball have increased in participation.
Availability of Transport
· The avalibility of transport has also increased, with most households owning a car.
- Participants are likely to travel by car, bus or rail, as are spectators.
· The increase in cheap air fares has also contributed to travel abroad to compete and spectate.
Globalistation of Sport
- It applies to global sports events and sports organisations.
- Globalisation: A process that involves sport as a worldwide business and features corporate brands, media coverage and freedom of movement of sports partcipants, officials and spectators.
- International sport is a big business with massive investments.
- Recently, some reputations have been tarnished with alleged corruption and cheating associated with organisations such as FIFA and IOC.
Globalisation: Freedom of Movement and Greater Exp
- Sport is a golbal marketplace for sports participants to showcase their skills to the highest bidder e.g. in football and rugby.
- National and International laws enable this freedom of movement of individuals, especially in the EU.
- In sports such as athletics, some change their nationalities to compete for a particular country.
- In the first few years of the 21st century, there was a big increase in the number of football players from African countries migrated to GB and France.
- Spectators have also become global in thier support. Many travel to international competitions such as the Olympics.
- The availibility and cheapness of air fares have made this even more accessible.
- In the mid-20th century, there was only limited sport shown on TV and many feard TV coverage would affect the number of people going to watch live sport.
- IN THE 1950's/60's, TV coverage was limited to highlights or big sports events such as the 1966 world cup.
- Types of media include: