A Level PE - Social Differentiation

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A Level PE - Social Differentiation:

Social differentiation related to the way people are treated differently in society

  • Any minority group can be affected
  • A person’s gender, age, race/religion and social class  could all be barriers to sporting progression

Provision, Opportunity and Esteem:

  • The 3 main constraints to any minority group’s profession in sport are; provision, opportunity & esteem
  • Provision and esteem are closely linked
  • Esteem is often the barrier that causes thepostdebate and controversy


What provisions is there?

This could include the availability of appropriate:

  • Lessons
  • Sessions
  • Facilities

The appropriateness of these factors is based upon their suitability in terms of:

  • Religious constraints
  • Time or money constraints (affordability)
  • Disability constraints
  • Availability of local facilities
  • Availability of appropriate equipment
  • Provision of coaching


What opportunities are there to participate in physical activities?

This could include:

  • The availability of adequate facilities
  • The acceptance of religious beliefs (e.g. being unable to compete on a Sun)
  • The amount of free time available
  • The amount of disposable income available
  • The possibility of a career hence time and place conflict
  • The availability of qualified coaches
  • The exclusivity of sine sports


Is there enough esteem?

Esteem: The concern of views and judgements of self or society. This is more personal to the athlete that opportunity and provision.

It may include:

  • Suitable role models
  • Belief in ability to perform the task
  • Traditional stereotypes affecting the image of the sport for a specific group (e.g. black people can’t swim)
  • The athletes own belief in how appropriate the activity is for them
  • Acceptance of activity or performer by peer groups
  • Confidence that performer will be accepted by those already participating in an activity

Racial Discrimination: Race statistics in Sport - The UK Stats:

  1. Approximately 25% of professional footballers are from black and minority ethnic groups (BME) backgrounds
  2. Nearly 0% are from UK Asian origins
  3. Around 30% of UK sprinters and Jumpers in the GB Athletics team are BME
  4. Over 1/3 of cricket and basketball participants in the UK are from non-white backgrounds
  5. Non-white participants make up a very small share of cyclists and golfers

Why are the Stats Like this?

  • The Role Model Effect
  • Sporting Culture
  • Young people may be encouraged to take part in certain activities because of genetic myths which have not been proven - self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Prejudice of scouts, coaches, etc

Barriers to Progression/Participation:

The concept of Stacking in sport:

  • When coaches place athletes in certain positions in a team based on their social stereotypes 
  • This concept has been an issue for a long time and is still used today 
  • Often American Football coaches will place whites in positions that require tactical thinking and intelligence, whereas African-Americans will be placed in positions that need speed and power.

The concept of ‘centrality’ in sport:

  • A theory in sports that backs stereotyping and stacking. 
  • It consists of the belief that the dominant group in society should do the dominant role in a team sport. 
  • E.g. The Olympic Committee as the majority of the committee is white,


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