A Level PE - Social Differentiation:
Social differentiation related to the way people are treated differently in society
- Any minority group can be affected
- A person’s gender, age, race/religion and social class could all be barriers to sporting progression
Provision, Opportunity and Esteem:
- The 3 main constraints to any minority group’s profession in sport are; provision, opportunity & esteem
- Provision and esteem are closely linked
- Esteem is often the barrier that causes thepostdebate and controversy
What provisions is there?
This could include the availability of appropriate:
The appropriateness of these factors is based upon their suitability in terms of:
- Religious constraints
- Time or money constraints (affordability)
- Disability constraints
- Availability of local facilities
- Availability of appropriate equipment
- Provision of coaching
What opportunities are there to participate in physical activities?
This could include:
- The availability of adequate facilities
- The acceptance of religious beliefs (e.g. being unable to compete on a Sun)
- The amount of free time available
- The amount of disposable income available
- The possibility of a career hence time and place conflict
- The availability of qualified coaches
- The exclusivity of sine sports
Is there enough esteem?
Esteem: The concern of views and judgements of self or society. This is more personal to the athlete that opportunity and provision.
It may include:
- Suitable role models
- Belief in ability to perform the task
- Traditional stereotypes affecting the image of the sport for a specific group (e.g. black people can’t swim)
- The athletes own belief in how appropriate the activity is for them
- Acceptance of activity or performer by peer groups
- Confidence that performer will be accepted by those already participating in an activity
Racial Discrimination: Race statistics in Sport - The UK Stats:
- Approximately 25% of professional footballers are from black and minority ethnic groups (BME) backgrounds
- Nearly 0% are from UK Asian origins
- Around 30% of UK sprinters and Jumpers in the GB Athletics team are BME
- Over 1/3 of cricket and basketball participants in the UK are from non-white backgrounds
- Non-white participants make up a very small share of cyclists and golfers
Why are the Stats Like this?
- The Role Model Effect
- Sporting Culture
- Young people may be encouraged to take part in certain activities because of genetic myths which have not been proven - self-fulfilling prophecy
- Prejudice of scouts, coaches, etc
Barriers to Progression/Participation:
The concept of Stacking in sport:
- When coaches place athletes in certain positions in a team based on their social stereotypes
- This concept has been an issue for a long time and is still used today
- Often American Football coaches will place whites in positions that require tactical thinking and intelligence, whereas African-Americans will be placed in positions that need speed and power.
The concept of ‘centrality’ in sport:
- A theory in sports that backs stereotyping and stacking.
- It consists of the belief that the dominant group in society should do the dominant role in a team sport.
- E.g. The Olympic Committee as the majority of the committee is white,…