Principles and theories of learning and performance.

  • Created by: Tooth04
  • Created on: 21-04-22 13:32

The cognitive stage

-Cognitive stage of learning - the first stage of learning used by a novice, sub-routines are explored by trial and error. 

-the performer has to think carefully about thier actions and try to understand how to copy demonstrations and instructions from the coach. 

-extrinsic feedback should be carefully considered. Lack of intrinsic feedback as the performer is yet to build knowledge and understanding of the sport and its skills. 

-movements are slow and uncoordinated as the performer think before taking action. 

-motor programmes are not yet developed and may perform may use trial and error in their approach to the task. 

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The associative stage

The associative stage - the seconds stage of learning, motor programmes begin to develop and performance is smoother. 

-longer duration than the cognitive stage, where the performer moves from a competent beginner to an accomplished performer. To ove through this stage the performer requires a lot of practice.

-trial and error may still be used to perfect actions, and feedback may still be used but it becomes more internal as understanding of the game and skills increases. 

- a top player can be used through modelling so the performer can adjust thier performance to reach a better or top level. 

-movements become smoother and more coordinated throughout this stage as the final stage of learning is almost reached. 

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The autonomous stage

The autonomous stage - the final stage of learning, used by an expert when movment is detailed and specific. 

-achieved after effective practice of which must continue in this stage if the performer is to remain in this stage.

-movements are fluent, efficient and automatically undertaken. Fine details can be focused on due to the basics being mastered.

-motor programmes are fully developed. 

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Stages of learning x feedback

-for a coach to make feedback effective the stage of learning of the performer should be accounted for. 

-a novice in the cognitive stage of learning should be exposed to positive feedback as motivation for them continue learning the task and extrinsic feedback as they have little knowledge of the skill. 

-a performer in the associative stage of learning requires extrinsic feedback at the start to further refine the skill, and then as thier knowledge increases they can begin to use intrinsic feedback. 

-a performer in the autonomous stage of learning requires detailed feeback. Negative feedback and extrinsic feedback as error correction. They can use intrinsic feedback to make small adjustments as they have a good knowledge of the skill. 

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Learning plateaus

A learning plateau - is a period during performance when there are no signs of improvement at the task. 

-the lack of improvement can be illustrated by a graph called a learning curve. The learning curve is a visual representation of what happens when a closed skill is performed repeatedly over a period of time by a novice.

  • Stage 1 - where the rate of learning is slow and performance is poor because the performer is in the cognitive stage of learning. 
  • Stage 2 - rapid acceleration in the rate of learning because the performer has began to master task.
  • Stage 3 - there is no improvement in the rate of learning and the performance has reached a 'plateau'. 
  • Stage 4 - a period at the end of the task, potentially due to fatigue, where performance may deteriorate. 
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Causes of plateau

-Lack of motivation - the lack of incentives or extrinsic rewards may cause the performer to lose drive or energy.

-Boredom - repetitve nature of a closed skill may cause boredom.

-Coaching - the coach may issue incorrect instructions or use incorrect practice methods. 

-Limit of the ability - the performer may not improve simply because they have reached the full extent of thier ability. 

-Targets set too low - the task may be the one that does not allow the learner to use thier full range of skills. 

-Fatigue - continuous action over an extended period of time would inevitably result in tiredness, especially if the same muscles are being used repeatedly. 

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Solutions to a plateau

-the task could be extended so that a new challenge to test the performer and new goals to see if such an extension is met.

-the player could find a new coach to raise perfromance levels.

-the coach could offer more praise and positive reinforcement to raise performance levels.

-a rest could be taken to avoid fatigue.

-more variety could be added to the task to avoid boredom.

-the concept of a plateau could be explained so the performer doesn't take responsibility for thier lack of improvement.

-the player could get some feedback to help imrpove performance and motivation. 

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