Sport Psychology

What are the 3 theories of personality?
Trait theory, social learning theory and Interactionist theory.
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What are the basic principles of the trait theory of personality?
Personality is innate and formed from inherited genetics so you are born with it, personality is stable and enduring meaning it will stay the same in any given situation so you can predict what people will do.
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What are the problems with the trait theory of personality?
Doesn't take into account that personality can be formed by experience and that it can change with different situations.
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What are the basic principles of the social learning theory of personality?
Behaviour is a direct function of the environment and all behaviour is learned and copied from significant others. It is more likely for the copied behaviour to be repeated if it is reinforced.
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What are the basic principles of the interactionist approach to personality?
Personality is a combination of innate personality and learned behaviour depending on the environment and this is why behaviour can be unpredictable. Genetically inherited traits are triggered by the environment.
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What are the 3 parts of the personality in Hollander's model?
1=The core-inner traits which are stable and solid. 2=Typical responses- usual response to a given situation. 3=Role related behaviour-further changed to behaviour may be required by the situation.
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What is Lewin's formula and what does it mean?
B=f(PxE)- behaviour is a function of someones personality and the environment they are in.
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What are 3 ways that a coach can use the interactionist approach to improve performance?
1.Identify when player may get aggressive and remove from situation. 2.Identify which situations players performance may decrease and work on this in training. 3.Encourage players to adapt to certain situations which may happen in a game situation.
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How may attitudes be formed?
Through role models eg.parents, due to stereotypes, due to societal norms or based on past experiences.
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What are the 3 components of the triadic model of attitudes?
Affective part (feelings), Behavioural part (what we do), Cognitive part (what we know).
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What are the 2 methods that can be used to change someones attitude?
1.Cognative Dissonance. 2. Persuasive communication.
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What is cognitive dissonance?
Where new information or activity is provided to the athlete to change an aspect of the triadic model so that it disagrees with the other aspects and the athlete questions their current attitude to something.
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What 4 things need to be ensured when using persuasive communication?
Person giving it needs to be a role model and of high status, the message needs to be clear and relevant to the performer.
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What is arousal?
An energised state ready to perform, a drive to achieve.
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What ate the 4 theories of arousal?
Drive theory, inverted U, catastrophe and zone of optimal functioning.
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What are the principles of the drive theory?
As arousal increases so does drive and this increases performance in a linear fashion. At high arousal performer concentrates on the dominant response which in experts is usually correct but not always in beginners so more likely bad performance.
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What type of tasks does the drive theory apply to more and why?
Simple because not much information needs to be processed and and high levels of arousal it is impossible to process lots of information.
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What are the principles of the inverted U theory?
Performance is improved by an increase in arousal but only up to an optimal point, further increases of arousal causes performance to deteriorate. Optimum level is higher for experts due to dominant response.
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How does the type of task affect the optimum level of arousal in the inverted U theory?
When taks are gross they use larger muscle groups so can deal with higher arousal levels, complex skills need lower levels of arousal to process a lot of information.
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What are the principles of the catastrophe theory?
Increased arousal levels can lead to an optimum level but after that it causes a dramatic reduction in performance. Due to a combination of cognitive and somatic anxieties, the player can regain control but only if the initial cause was mild.
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What are the principles of the zone of optimal functioning?
The optimal level of arousal varied for different performers but the optimal zone for a performer is their optimal zone of functioning. In optimal zone things flow, the performer is confident and calm and they feel in total control and total focus.
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What is the peak flow experience?
Extension of the feelings in the zone of optimal functioning, where actions, timing and movement seem to be perfect-the ultimate intrinsic experience. Promoted by high confidence, high fitness, optimum conditions and anxiety control.
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What are 3 factors affecting the peak flow experience?
1.Poor mental preparation. 2.Environmental factors eg. pressure from the crowd. 3.Injury or fatigue.
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What is competitive trait anxiety?
Anxiety which is part of the athletes genetic make up and it is displayed before all events no matter the importance.
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What is competitive state anxiety?
Anxiety due to certain situation in a game which is temporary, eg. the responsibility of being the penalty taker for your team. Someone with trait is more likely to get state.
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Give some examples of cognitive anxiety
Worry, irrational thought, self doubt and loss of concentration.
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Give some examples of somatic anxiety
Increased HR, sweating, muscle tension, sickness
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What effect does somatic anxiety have on performance?
The same affect as stated in the inverted U theory here there is an optimum point for best performance but anything beyond this will cause reduction in performance.
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When are cognitive and somatic anxiety felt before an event?
Cognitive starts much earlier even up to a week before due to worry, cognitive only tends to start around an hour before event, both peak at beginning of event then decrease as event goes on.
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Give the 3 types of anxiety measures
Questionnaires, observation and physiological measures.
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Give advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires
Quick and easy to gain a lot of data for comparison. Athletes may not understand questions and give wrong answers, answers change with mood, questions can lead to bias and people may rush them.
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Give advantages and disadvantages of observation
True to life as it is in natural setting. Based on opinion so unreliable subjective data, observers need to know what athletes are usually like making it time consuming, people may change behaviour when know they are being watched.
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Give advantages and disadvantages of physiological measures
Objective data for comparison, can be used in training and games. Training of coaches is required, wearing GPS monsters may restrict movement and performers are aware they are being monitored=change in behaviour.
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What are the characteristics of aggression?
Intent to harm, reactive, out of control, outside of the rules, deliberate and hostile.
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What are the characteristics of assertion?
Inside the rules, well motivated, controlled, goal directed
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What is meant by there is a grey area around boxing?
It is within the rules to hit your opponent but when you hit them you intend to harm them to cross over between aggression and assertion.
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What are the 4 theories of aggression?
Instinct, frustration-aggression hypothesis, aggressive cue theory and social learning theory.
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What are the basic principles of the instinct theory?
All athletes born with aggressive instinct due to animal ancestors which surface with provocation eg. when under threat, but when aggressive act is done=catharsis which is a benefit of sport.
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What are the problems with the instinct theory?
Not all aggression is reactive, some is learned, catharsis isn't always experienced, not all ancestors were aggressive.
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What are the principles of the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
When players are blocked from their goals they have a build up of frustration which leads to aggression, eg. fouled when through on goal, aggressive act=catharsis.
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What are the principles of the aggressive cue hypothesis?
Cues are learned and cause aggressive responses when present, cue may have been reacted to aggressively in training with no punishment, idea that aggression can be learned.
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What are the principles of the social learning theory?
Aggression is a learned response which is copied from significant others such as role models-especially when seeing them be successful, live behaviour witnessed is more likely to be copied.
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What is the problem with the social learning theory of aggression?
Aggression can also be instinctive or reactive-it sometimes occurs in situations where it can't be learned.
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How can coaches prevent aggression?
Not tolerate/punish it in training, non aggressive goals, remove players from aggressive situations, fair play awards, remind players of their group responsibility, use non aggressive role models.
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How can referees prevent aggression?
Send players off, apply rules fairly, punish with fines.
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How can players prevent aggression?
Remove themselves from situations, remind teammates of group responsibility, talk to teammates calmly,mental rehearsal to lower arousal, channel aggression into assertion.
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Give some examples of intrinsic motivation
Feeling of pride, self satisfaction when completing a hard task and doing well.
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What are the 2 types of extrinsic motivation+examples?
Tangible-rewards you can touch eg.medals/money. Intangible-rewards you can't touch eg. crowd cheering and praise.
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What should coaches to to ensure motivation is maintained?
Dont place too much emphasis on tangible rewards, make activity fun, break skills down=success, point out role models, attribute success to athlete, set achievable goals, give feedback.
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What is achievement motivation?
How much desire a player have to keep trying to achieve.
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What are the characteristics of a NACH performer?
Welcome competition, take risks, confident, persistent in tasks, attribute success internally, welcome feedback and evaluation, base their actions on seeking pride.
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What the characteristics of a NAF performer?
Give up easily, won't keep trying though fear of losing, do not like feedback, take easy options of people they can beat or of people everyone expects them to lose to so when they lose people expected it.
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What determines if someone is a NACH or NAF performer?
Depends on interaction between personality of performer and the situation they're in, perceived probability of success, easy task but no incentive=NAF, hard task but big incentive=NACH
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How can coaches develop NACH performers?
Reinforcement (praise when they achieve their goals), attribute success internally, set tasks that success is easily reached in, improve confidence and set achievable goals and set new ones when they're reached.
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What is the achievement goal theory?
Motivation and task persistence depend on type of goals set by performer, outcome=to win, if achieved gives pride but fail confidence lowered. Task related goal=process of success, measured against self not others so always provides success+confidenc
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What are the 2 types of confidence?
Trait and state
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What is competitive orientation?
How drawn a performer is to challenging situations.
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What are the principles of Vealey's model of sport confidence?
The objective sporting situation combines with SC trait and competitive orientation determine your SC state in a situation, when you perform you feel how you did (subjective outcome) and this feeds back into SC trait and competitive orientation.
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What is self-efficacy?
State level confidence-beleif in your ability to master a specific sporting situation
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What does bandora say are the 4 sources f self efficacy?
1.Performance accomplishments-past experiences. 2.Vicarious Experience-watching others of same level be successful. 3.Verbal persuasion-encouragement for player to repeat success. 4.Emotional Arousal-how player controls and uses increase in arousal.
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What can be done by coaches to improve confidence?
Stress management techniques to control arousal, accurate demonstration by person of similar ability, point out past success, praise, set tasks that performer can achieve=success, attainable goals, attribute success internally, mental practice.
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What is the home field advantage?
Where the influence of the home crowd can increase confidence of home team but increase anxiety of away team causing home team to be more likely to win and away team more likely to make mistakes.
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Give an example of the home field advantage?
London 2012 Olympics-team GB got most medals in years.
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What 4 types of people did Zajonc say can be present at a sporting event?
1. Audience. 2. Co-actors (people who are doing the same thing but aren't in competition). 4. Competitors. 5. Social Reinforcers (people with direct influence eg.coaches)
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What does Zajoncs model of social facilitation suggest?
Others present can be interactive (social reinforcers+competitors) or passive (audience+co actors). Passive others increase arousal and drive which causes facilitation for experts/simple skills but causes inhibition for novices/complex skills.
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What effects if the increased arousal will cause social facilitation or inhibition?
If the dominant response of the performer is correct or not, in a novice it is unlikely to be visa versa.
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What is evaluation apprehension?
The perceived fear f feeling judged that athlete may feel if they know an expert or scout is watching them, it is more apparent when athlete isn't confident.
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How can coaches prevent social inhibition?
1.Familiraise players with performing infant of crowds during training. 2. Gradually introduce evaluation eg. through team talks. 3. Improve focus and concentration so athlete finds it easier to ignore the crowd and focus on task.
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What are the 4 characteristics of an established team?
Collective identity eg. kit. Interaction-teamwork and roles. Communication-team signals eg. rugby hand signals. Shared goals-work for each other.
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What are the 4 stages of Tuckmans group formation theory?
1.Forming-when group comes together. 2.Storming-potential conflict eg. when 2 people want same position. 3.Norming-conflicts resolved and standard accepted. 4.Performing-interactive and work together to achieve goals.
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What does Tuckmans theory explain?
Why teams who have the best of everything may underperform eg. England team. But also explains unexpected success eg. Wigan winning FA cup 2013 or Leister City wining premier league.
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What is cohesion key?
Integration of new team members and how they work together.
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Whats the difference between interaction and co-action?
Interaction is how players work together in different roles and co-action is when athletes work together all doing the same thing eg.rowing.
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What are Carron's 4 antecedents which have to be in place for cohesion to be effective?
1=Environmental factors eg.size and time. 2=Personal factors eg.similarity of group members. 3=Leadership factors and respect. 4.Team factors eg. motivation and cohesion.
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What is task cohesion and social cohesion?
Task=looks at end result, involves team working for a goal. Social=interaction between members of team, may even socialise away from sport but this can cause cliques to form which can be negative for cohesion.
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What is Steiner's model of team performance?
Actual productivity (outcome)= Potential productivity (pest possible performance) - Faulty processes (social loafing and ringlemann effect)
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What is social loafing?
Loss of motivation due to efforts being unrecognised so players coast through games and hide behind teammates due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, no respect for leader, not liking role, effect of cliques.
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How can social loafing be avoided by coaches?
Reward effort, give responsibility, use stats to analyse performance, set realistic goals, train in small games so everyones effort matters.
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What is the Ringlemann effect?
Individual effort decreases with group size.
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What are the benefits of goal setting?
Increased motivation, improves confidence, regulates and sustains effort.
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What are outcome goals?
Based on outcome and success eg. to win a match. Maintains motivation if realistic but if not achieved motivation is lost.
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What are task orientated goals?
Goals that athletes can achieve without winning eg. you can get a PB and come 3rd.
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What are performance goals?
Judged against previous performances, breakdown in technique to improve on from last time.
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What are process goals?
Improvements to technique which should result in better performance eg. maintaining consistent leg action over 200m.
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What does the SMARTER principles of goal setting stand for?
Specific, Measured, Achievable, Realistic, Time bound, Evaluate and re-do.
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What is the difference between prescribed and emergent leaders?
Prescribed are appointed from outside the group, emergent is appointed from within.
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What are the qualities of a good leader?
Charisma, communication, empathy, experience, inspirational, confidence, organised.
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What are the 3 styles of leadership + brief description
1.Autocratic+task orientated-leader makes decisions and specific plan-groups tend to switch off. 2. Democratic+person orientated-seeks opinion of group and makes plan based around it-group works without leader. 3.Laissez-faire-leader does very little
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What are the 3 situations in Fiedlers contingency model which affects leadership style?
1.Most favourable-leader respected, high ability, high motivation, clear task, harmony. 2.Least favourable-hostility, low ability, low motivation, little respect for leader. 3.Moderately favourable-medium motivation,little support,reasonable ability.
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What are the principles of chelladurais multi dimensional model?
The type of leadership style adopted depends on the situation eg.dangerous, the type of leader eg. autocratic and the group eg. young which affects leaders required, preferred and actual behaviour, affects if there is good outcome+group satisfaction.
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What are some stressors in sport?
Injury, important matches, good opponents, important rewards, fear of failure.
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What is attentional narrowing?
Part of cognitive stress where the amount of information which can be processed is reduced due to high levels of arousal.
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What are the 6 stress management techniques?
Thought stopping, positive self talk, imagery, visualisation, mental rehearsal, attention control/cue utilisation.
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What are the 4 types of attention style which can be adopted by players to lower stress?
Broad, external (lots from environment), broad, internal (mental analysis of lots), narrow, external (one cue from environment) narrow, internal (mental practice of one or two cues)
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What are the 3 somatic stress management techniques?
Centering, progressive muscle relaxation and biofeedback.
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What is the locus of causality in attribution theory?
The amount of control athlete had over the outcome internal/external, internal=more control.
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What is the stability dimension of the attribution theory?
Stable/unstable if it can be changed in short period of time eg. effort or ability.
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What is a self serving bias?
When athletes always attribute wins internally and stable-ability but always attribute losses externally and unstable. Promotes confidence and motivation.
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What is learned helplessness?
Where athletes always attribute failure internally stable so they believe failure is inevitable and can cause them to drop out of sports.
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How can coaches carry out attribution retraining?
Changing attribution for failure to external unstable, provide motivation, set achievable targets, remind of past success, allow success in training.
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How is amateurism still evident in sport?
Fair play/sportsmanship eg. shaking hands before a match in football, Calling referee 'sir' in rugby union.
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What is evidence that olympic oath has no influence anymore?
Ben Johnson-100m sprinter at Seoul Olympics, Justin Gatlin-win at all costs, Phillip Hindes 'fell' from his bike at start of race in London 2012 olympics in order to get a false start as he didn't think his start was very good.
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How is sportsmanship encouraged?
NGB campaigner, rules to promote fair play, fair play awards, punish foul play, positive role models, rigorous drugs testing.
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Examples of gamesmanship in sport
Delaying restart to get back into position, time wasting when winning, sledging in cricket, not staying quiet in golf, taking breaks in tennis to disrupt flow.
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Evidence of win at all costs ethic in sport
No draws in finals, managers and coaches fired if unsuccessful, deviance eg.violence, media praise for winners.
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What is positive and negative deviance?
Positive=Over conformity to rules eg. overtraining. Negative=Under conformity to rules- win at all costs.
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What are the causes of violence by performers in sport?
Win ethic, emotional intensity of match, pre match media hype, provocation from oponents eg. zinedene zidane, natually violent sports, low levels of punishment.
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How can violence in sport be prevented?
More officials/technology, harsh punishments, promoting good role models, fair play awards.
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What are the causes of spectator hooliganism in football?
Emotional intensity eg.local derby, alcohol, pre match media hype, poor policing, lack of effective deterrents, ability to hide in crowd, violence on pitch, frustration at result, displaying masculinity.
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Solutions to combat football hooliganism
Ban/control of alcohol, increased policing, tougher deterrents, CCTV t catch people in crowds, all seater stadiums stop people standing, responsible media coverage, earlier kick offs to avoid pubs opening, trespassing laws to stop pitch invasions.
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Negative implications of hooliganism for football
Decline in participation as parents don't want their kids playing it, law abiding fans don't attend matches, fans got clubs banned from competitions, expensive cost of policing, English bands portrayed as thugs.
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Reasons for taking performance enhancing drugs
Win at all costs attitude, fame and fortune attached to winning, pressure to win from coaches and peers, back of effective deterrents-testing always behind doping, poor role models eg lance armstrong.
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Why might an athlete take steroids but what are the side effects?
Aid muscle growth and increased strength and power and improves body's capacity to train for longer. Cause liver damage, aggression, acne, heart problems and paranoia.
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Why might an athlete take beta blockers and what are the side effects?
Improve accuracy and precision by lowering HR and muscle tension and decreasing blood flow. Cause tiredness and slow blood pressure and poor aerobic capacity.
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Why would an athlete take EPO and what are the side effects?
Stimulates red blood cell production increasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood so increases endurance and recovery. Results in blood clotting, strokes and in rare cases death.
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What positives and negatives does drug taking have on the sport?
Positive impacts on performance, fame and fortune. Poor role models, negatively impacts future career aspects, health complications, legal action agains performers.
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Prevention of drug taking in sport
UKAD (UK anti doping) works with athletes to inform of dangers, 100% me programme, investment in drug detection technology,WADA work with UKAD.
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Problems with stopping drug taking
Difficult to gain immediate access, ongoing development of new drugs-one step ahead, drugs can be taken accidentally-again baxter took cold relief, different countries have different
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Arguments for drugs in sport
Battle against drugs is expensive, very difficult, detection not very effective, hard to define drug from supplement, taken accidentally-again baxter, levels playing field, monitored then health risks monitered, don't want to be role models.
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Reasons against drugs in sport
Health risks, negative role models, negative image to sports, pressure gives no choice, success should be about hard work, unfair advantage, cheating, richer countries can afford them, loss of sponsorship.
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How are non sport related injuries dealt with in sport?
Treated as any other crime, claimed against for injuries suffered and for loss of earnings due to injury, usually dealt with by NGBs but can go to court
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What is the bowman ruling 1995?
Rights to footballers meaning they can move freely without cost to another team at the end of their contract.
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Rory Mcilroy-Oakley case
He left them without allowing them first right of refusal which was in his contract-resolved without court.
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Wayne Rooney-Proavtive sports case
Went to court as they said he owed them commission but the contract was signed when he was 17 so didn't count-restraint of trade.
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When can laws be enforced on officials of sport?
When they don't fulfil their duty of care which is to ensure everything possible to keep athletes safe (negligence) eg. if rugby refs let a scrum collapse serious injuries can be sustained- Allport player was paralysed.
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How can coaches show a reasonable standard of care?
Up to date contact details, supervision, first aid provision, DBS checks, risk assessments.
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What did the occupiers liability act of 1957 mean?
Occupier of a premises has common duty of care for visitors.
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Safety of sports ground act 1975
Protects all spectators and covers all grounds in all sports.
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Sporting events act (control of alcohol) 1985
Ban possession of alcohol when entering or travelling too a match
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Fire safety sport act 1987
has to have fire certificate, maximum number of spectators allowed in stand
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Football spectators act 1989
Bans of spectators who have already commits offences.
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Football offences act 1991
Created 3 offences-missiles, racism and trespassing.
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What characteristics make sports attractive to the media?
High levels of skill for viewers, visually appealing, easily understood with simple rules, relatively short time scale-easily televised, nationally relevant.
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What is video motion analysis?
High speed camera and computer with software that can playback footage frame by frame to analyse performance.
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What is notational match analysis?
Records aspects of performance, studies movement patterns in terms of strategies and tactics
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What is biomechanics?
Analyses the sporting impacts of body movements.
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What are the positives of indirect calorimetry?
Determines energy requirements, calculates energy expenditure, classify people as obese, calculation of REE (resting energy expenditure) to balance diet.
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What are possible negatives of indirect calorimetry?
Air leaks cause inaccuracy, difficult to use on children, overfeeding or underfeeding may occur if wrong, process measures consumption not needs.
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Why is GPS used in sport?
Better use of training time-training meets demands, tactical analysis, coaches can compare performance data to pick the best teams, helps injured players get through rehab faster.
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What are the functions of sport analytics?
Monitor fitness of performer, develop skill and techniques, injury prevention and game analysis.
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What is vibration technology and what are he benefits?
Vibration applies to area or whole body; improves bone density, increases muscle mass, improves circulation, reduces joint pain, alleviates stress, boosts metabolism, delayed DOMS.
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What is electrostimulation and what benefits does it have?
Gentle electrocution of muscles; strengthens and tones muscles, prevents loss in fitness levels during periods of inactivity, gradual strengthening of muscles, removes lactic acid.
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What are the basic principles of the trait theory of personality?


Personality is innate and formed from inherited genetics so you are born with it, personality is stable and enduring meaning it will stay the same in any given situation so you can predict what people will do.

Card 3


What are the problems with the trait theory of personality?


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Card 4


What are the basic principles of the social learning theory of personality?


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Card 5


What are the basic principles of the interactionist approach to personality?


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