PE Past papers - Section A

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Section A

At the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, David Davies won the silver medal in the swimming 10 kilometre marathon event, in a time of 1 hour 51 minutes and 53.1 seconds.

(01) Explain how the majority of energy used during the race would be provided and outline the process of ‘glycogen loading’ that may be used by performers to improve performance in this type of event. (14 marks)

How the majority of energy is used:

A. Majority produced by the aerobic system/oxygen

B. Glycolysis

C. Carbohydrates/glycgoen/glucose

D. Broken down into pyruvate/pyruvic acid

E. 2 ATP produced

F. Krebs crycle

G. Fats/triglycerides/fatty acids

H. Beta oxidation

I. Oxidation of acetlyl-coenzyme A/ production of CO2

J. Electron trsnport chain

K. Water/ hydrogen ions formed

L. Large quantities of ATP produced / 34-36 ATP

Process of glycogen loading:

M. Aim to increase glycogen stores

N. Delays fatigue/increases endurance capacity/increased ATP/hitting the wall

O. (Method1) Reduce glycogen levels

P. Achieved by increased endurance training

Q. Following 3 days of low carbohydrate diet

R. Tapering/reduction in training levels

S. Few days before compeition high carbohydrate level diet

T. Trained/elite atheletes may rest for several days before eting high carbohydrate diet

U. Increased water consumption helps the process

V. (Method 2) day before 3 mintue high intensity exercise

W. Carb window opens

X. Immediately/within 20 minutes intake, high carbohydrate diet

During the race a swimmer has to dive off the starting blocks as quickly as possible.

(02) Identify the ‘muscle fibre type’ used to complete this action and justify your answer. (3 marks)

A. Fast twich fibres/type 2

B. Type 2b/fast twich glycotic

C. Fast speed of contraction

D. High force contraction/powerful contraction/strong contraction

(03) Using ‘Newton’s First’ and ‘Second Laws of Motion’, explain how the swimmer dives off the starting blocks. (4 marks) 

A. Force is applied by the muscles

B. Performer will remain on the blocks unless a force is applied

C. Performer continues to move forwards with constant velocity until another force is applied

D. Water slows the swimmer (2nd law of motion/law of acceleration)

E. Mass of swimmer is constant

F. Greater the force exerted on the blocks, the greater the acceleration

G. Force governs direction

Competitive swimmers will often compete in several events and suffer from fatigue due to limited recovery time.

(04) Explain the possible causes of fatigue during a race. (3 marks)

A. Build up of lactic acid /accumulation of hydrogen ions/OBLA

B. Glycogen depletion/needed for glycolysis

C. Dehydration/reduces blood flow/loss of electrolytes/increase body temperature

D. Reduced levels of calcium

E. Reduced levels of acetylcholine/slows nerve impulse and inhibits contraction

F. Lack of PC stores

(05) Explain how the use of an ice bath can help reduce the ‘delayed onset of muscle soreness’ (DOMS). (4 marks)

A. (Involves sitting in ice cold water for) between 5 – 20 minutes

B. Causes blood vessels to tighten/decreases metabolic activity/vasoconstriction

C. Restricting blood flow to the area

D. Reduces swelling/tissue breakdown/aids muscle repair

E. After leaving the ice bath, area is

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