Unit 3 Section B Psychology

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Innate and enduring personality characteristics and we are born with certain personality
characteristics, which are determined genetically.
Stable, enduring, and consistent.
Dominant traits are stronger as they are arranged in a hierarchical order.
These characteristics are likely to be shown in all situations so behaviour is predictable.
The trait approach doesn't consider environmental affects or that people may try to
structure their own personality, saying personality is stable and enduring.
E.g. a netball player will remain calm/controlled even if their opponent is constantly
making contact.
Type A and B
Type A ­ highly competitive, desire to succeed, works fast, likes control, and prone to
stress, high stress/arousal level, competitive, lacks tolerance, needs to be in control of the
task and fast worker.
Type B ­ noncompetitive, unambitious, works slower,
doesn't enjoy control, and less prone to stress, low
stress/arousal level, not concerned with competition,
patient, doesn't need to be in control, and works slowly.
4 dimensional model.
Introvert ­ unsociable, shy and nervous.
Extrovert ­ sociable, outgoing and lively.
Neurotic ­ anxious, moody and illogical.
Stable ­ calm, even tempered, and controlled.
Personality is made up of traits and the influence of environmental experiences.
Accepts that traits and social learning are relevant and combines them.
E.g. an introverted gymnast displays extrovert characteristics to appeal to judges.
Concentric ring theory.
Psychological core ­ permanent and unlikely to change.
Typical response ­ to the environment but indicate the core.
Role related behaviour ­ can be different to the core and makes up the surface of our
Behaviour is a function of personality and the environment.

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B = F ( P E )
Social learning theory
Personality is not innate but learned from our experiences.
Behaviour changes according to the situation, so cannot be predicted.
We observe and copy the behaviour and personality of significant others (parents, peers,
coaches and role models) as well as socialising (conforming to the `norms').
If behaviour is successful or is praised, it's more likely that we will imitate it.…read more

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Achievement motivation
NACH ­ need to achieve, approach behaviour, seeks challenge, concerned about training
standards, enjoys evaluation, attributes to internal factors, task persistence, values
feedback and will usually be type A and extroverted.…read more

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Testing has proved inconclusive and as there is no certain method of linking personality
with sport/behaviour.
Performers may change their behaviour if they know they are being tested or watched
May be inhibited by wearing biological testing equipment E.g.…read more

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At high arousal the performance reverts to their dominant response. The dominant
response is a welllearned skill that the performer uses when under immense competitive
If the performer is in the autonomous stage of learning, or using a gross or simple skill, the
dominant response is likely to be correct.
I f the performer is in the associative stage of learning, they will not be able to cope with
the high level of arousal and therefore the dominant response is likely to be incorrect.…read more

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The reduction in performance is more dramatic.
Control can be regained and performance can be built back up or it can continue to
decrease. Follows the same principle as the inverted U theory, but once moderate is
surpassed and arousal continues to increase, there is a dramatic decrease in performance.
Body and mind become overaroused causing an immediate decline in performance,
making them unable to make the correct decisions, to lose focus and frequent mistakes.…read more

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To achieve peak flow, performers should be given a task that is realistic yet challenges
them at an appropriate level. They then enter `the zone'.
Characteristics of peak flow
Highly focused on task, with good selective attention.
Movement feels effortless.
Clear goals.
High levels of selfefficacy.
In the zone of optimal functioning.
Thoughts of nervousness, apprehension and worry a performer has about their lack of
ability to perform tasks successfully.
Mental symptoms of anxiety, e.g. worrying, irrational thoughts and confusion.…read more

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Task importance, losing, or fear of failing, perceived inaccuracy of an official's decisions,
being fouled, injury, or fear of being injury, lack of selfconfidence of efficacy, audience
effect such as an abusive crowd and evaluation apprehension.
Often both types of anxiety occur together in sport. To achieve maximal performance the
athlete needs to experience low levels of cognitive anxiety and not worry about
Performers should have moderate levels of somatic anxiety as this produces the best
performance.…read more

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Goal setting
SMARTER goals.
Specific, measurable, agreed, realistic, time phased, exiting, recorded.
Visualization, mental rehearsal and imagery
Formation of mental images of performance and imagine a calm place.
Internal ­ create the feeling of the movement.
External ­ see yourself performing the movement.
Used when negative thoughts occur and replace them with positive statements about
Thought stopping
Use of cue, action or word.
Redirects attention to positive thoughts.
Attention control
Changing the focus of attention to detect only relevant cues.…read more

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Hostile aggression
In individual purposefully harms an opponent for no reason other than to cause pain. It is
outside the rules and anger is shown.
E.g. A player punching in rugby, when the player gets up to play the ball.
Instrumental aggression
An individual purposely harms and opponent, but the aim is to gain an advantage over the
opposition. Anger is not involved.
E.g.…read more


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