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Innate and enduring personality characteristics and we are born with certain personality
characteristics, which are determined genetically.
Stable, enduring, and consistent.
Dominant traits are stronger as they are arranged in a hierarchical order.
These characteristics are likely to be shown in all situations so behaviour is predictable.…

Page 2

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B = F ( P E )
Social learning theory
Personality is not innate but learned from our experiences.
Behaviour changes according to the situation, so cannot be predicted.
We observe and copy the behaviour and personality of significant others (parents, peers,
coaches and role models) as well as socialising…

Page 3

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Achievement motivation
NACH ­ need to achieve, approach behaviour, seeks challenge, concerned about training
standards, enjoys evaluation, attributes to internal factors, task persistence, values
feedback and will usually be type A and extroverted. Exhibits approach behaviour, has
high selfefficacy/confidence, enjoys challenges, will take risks, sticks with the task…

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Testing has proved inconclusive and as there is no certain method of linking personality
with sport/behaviour.
Performers may change their behaviour if they know they are being tested or watched
May be inhibited by wearing biological testing equipment E.g. HR monitor
Performers may not give reliable answers to the questionnaires…

Page 5

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At high arousal the performance reverts to their dominant response. The dominant
response is a welllearned skill that the performer uses when under immense competitive
If the performer is in the autonomous stage of learning, or using a gross or simple skill, the
dominant response is likely to be…

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The reduction in performance is more dramatic.
Control can be regained and performance can be built back up or it can continue to
decrease. Follows the same principle as the inverted U theory, but once moderate is
surpassed and arousal continues to increase, there is a dramatic decrease…

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correct attentional style, have a positive attitude before and during performance, and
have control of their arousal levels.
To achieve peak flow, performers should be given a task that is realistic yet challenges
them at an appropriate level. They then enter `the zone'.
Characteristics of peak flow
Highly focused on…

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Task importance, losing, or fear of failing, perceived inaccuracy of an official's decisions,
being fouled, injury, or fear of being injury, lack of selfconfidence of efficacy, audience
effect such as an abusive crowd and evaluation apprehension.
Often both types of anxiety occur together in sport. To achieve maximal performance the…

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Goal setting
SMARTER goals.
Specific, measurable, agreed, realistic, time phased, exiting, recorded.
Visualization, mental rehearsal and imagery
Formation of mental images of performance and imagine a calm place.
Internal ­ create the feeling of the movement.
External ­ see yourself performing the movement.
Used when negative thoughts…

Page 10

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Hostile aggression
In individual purposefully harms an opponent for no reason other than to cause pain. It is
outside the rules and anger is shown.
E.g. A player punching in rugby, when the player gets up to play the ball.
Instrumental aggression
An individual purposely harms and opponent,…


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